Word Short Keys

Ms Word  

  1. F1 key  Get help or use the Office assistant
  2. SHIFT and F1 Key  Context sensitive help
  3. F2 Key  Move text or image
  4. SHIFT + F2 Key  Copy text
  5. F3 Key  Insert an autotext entry
  6. SHIFT + F3 Key  Change the case of the selected text
  7. F4 Key  Perform last action again
  8. SHIFT + F4 Key  Perform a Find or Go to action again
  9. F5 Key  Displays the Go to dialogue box. You can also get to Find and Replace from here
  10. SHIFT + F5 Key  Move to a previous revision
  11. F6 Key  Go to the next frame or pane
  12. SHIFT + F6 Key  Go to the previous frame or pane
  13. F7 Key  Launch the Spell checker
  14. SHIFT + F7 Key  Launch the Thesaurus
  15. F8 Key  Extend the current selection
  16. SHIFT + F8 Key  Shrink the current selection
  17. F9 Key  Update the selected fields
  18. SHIFT + F9 Key  Switch between a field code and its result
  19. F10 Key  Activate the menu bar
  20. SHIFT + F10 Key  Display a Shortcut Menu (same as right-clicking)
  21. F11 Key  Go to the next field
  22. SHIFT + F11 Key  Go to the previous field
  23. F12 Key  Save file As, equivalent to tools menu
  24. SHIFT + F12 Key  Save document, equivalent to tools menu
  25. CTRL and A  Selects all in the current document
  26. CTRL and B  Bold text
  27. CTRL and C  Copies the item or text to the Clipboard and can be pasted using CTRL and V
  28. CTRL and D  Displays the Font dialogue box
  29. CTRL and E  Centre Alignment
  30. CTRL and F  Displays the Find dialog box, to search the current document
  31. CTRL and G  Displays the Go to dialog box, to go to a specific location in the current document
  32. CTRL and H  Displays the Replace dialogue box
  33. CTRL and I  Italic text
  34. CTRL and J  Full Justification
  35. CTRL and K  Create Hyperlink
  36. CTRL and L — Left Alignment
  37. CTRL and M  Tab
  38. CTRL and N  Creates a new document
  39. CTRL and O  Displays the Open File dialogue box
  40. CTRL and P  Displays the Print dialog box
  41. CTRL and R  Right Alignment
  42. CTRL and S  Displays the Save dialog box
  43. CTRL and U  Underline text
  44. CTRL and V  Pastes the copied item or text from the Clipboard into the current position in the document
  45. CTRL and X  Cuts the item or text selected to the Clipboard
  46. CTRL and Y  Redo the last undone action
  47. CTRL and Z  Undoes the last action
  48. CTRL and ENTER  Insert Page Break
  49. CTRL and F2  Show Print preview
  50. CTRL and F4  Closes the active document window
  51. CTRL and F6  Opens the next document window

Excel Short Keys

Excel Short keys

Key Description
Ctrl+A Select All current sheet
Ctrl+B Bold selected value(s)
Ctrl+C Copy selected
Ctrl+D Fill Down
Ctrl+F Find specific value from current sheet
Ctrl+G To jump specific location
Ctrl+H Replace with new value
Ctrl+I Make a Italic
Ctrl+K Insert Hyperlink
Ctrl+N create in new book
Ctrl+O Open file from computer
Ctrl+P Print sheet
Ctrl+R Fill Right
Ctrl+S Save current sheet
Ctrl+U Make a Underline
Ctrl+V Paste
Ctrl W Close current sheet
Ctrl+X Cut select value
Ctrl+Y Repeat
Ctrl+Z Undo
F1 Help
F2 Edit
F3 Paste Name
F4 Repeat last action
F4 While typing a formula, switch between absolute/relative refs
F5 Goto
F6 Next Pane
F7 Spell check
F8 Extend mode
F9 Recalculate all workbooks
F10 Activate Menubar
F11 New Chart
F12 Save As
Ctrl+: Insert Current Time
Ctrl+; Insert Current Date
Ctrl+” Copy Value from Cell Above
Ctrl+’ Copy Formula from Cell Above
Shift Hold down shift for additional functions in Excel’s menu
Shift+F1 What’s This?
Shift+F2 Edit cell comment
Shift+F3 Paste function into formula
Shift+F4 Find Next
Shift+F5 Find
Shift+F6 Previous Pane
Shift+F8 Add to selection
Shift+F9 Calculate active worksheet
Shift+F10 Display shortcut menu
Shift+F11 New worksheet
Shift+F12 Save
Ctrl+F3 Define name
Ctrl+F4 Close
Ctrl+F5 XL, Restore window size
Ctrl+F6 Next workbook window
Shift+Ctrl+F6 Previous workbook window
Ctrl+F7 Move window
Ctrl+F8 Resize window
Ctrl+F9 Minimize workbook
Ctrl+F10 Maximize or restore window
Ctrl+F11 Inset 4.0 Macro sheet
Ctrl+F12 File Open
Alt+F1 Insert Chart
Alt+F2 Save As
Alt+F4 Exit
Alt+F8 Macro dialog box
Alt+F11 Visual Basic Editor
Ctrl+Shift+F3 Create name by using names of row and column labels
Ctrl+Shift+F6 Previous Window
Ctrl+Shift+F12 Print
Alt+Shift+F1 New worksheet
Alt+Shift+F2 Save
Alt+= AutoSum
Ctrl+` Toggle Value/Formula display
Ctrl+Shift+A Insert argument names into formula
Alt+Down arrow Display AutoComplete list
Alt+’ Format Style dialog box
Ctrl+Shift+~ General format
Ctrl+Shift+! Comma format
Ctrl+Shift+@ Time format
Ctrl+Shift+# Date format
Ctrl+Shift+$ Currency format
Ctrl+Shift+% Percent format
Ctrl+Shift+^ Exponential format
Ctrl+Shift+& Place outline border around selected cells
Ctrl+Shift+_ Remove outline border
Ctrl+Shift+* Select current region
Ctrl++ Insert
Ctrl+- Delete
Ctrl+1 Format cells dialog box
Ctrl+2 Bold
Ctrl+3 Italic
Ctrl+4 Underline
Ctrl+5 Strikethrough
Ctrl+6 Show/Hide objects
Ctrl+7 Show/Hide Standard toolbar
Ctrl+8 Toggle Outline symbols
Ctrl+9 Hide rows
Ctrl+0 Hide columns
Ctrl+Shift+( Unhide rows
Ctrl+Shift+) Unhide columns
Alt or F10 Activate the menu
Ctrl+Tab In toolbar: next toolbar
Shift+Ctrl+Tab In toolbar: previous toolbar
Ctrl+Tab In a workbook: activate next workbook
Shift+Ctrl+Tab In a workbook: activate previous workbook
Tab Next tool
Shift+Tab Previous tool
Enter Do the command
Shift+Ctrl+F Font Drop Down List
Shift+Ctrl+F+F Font tab of Format Cell Dialog box
Shift+Ctrl+P Point size Drop Down List

WordPress Interface Part-2

Lecture-4 

Under Standing of WORD-PRESS Interface Continue..

Pages

Pages are static pages on your blog.  They are different from posts.  Pages can include information about you or the site and are not time sensitive like a post.

Comments

Comments are a way for you to get feedback from your readers. The Comments section allows you to administer your comments to approve, reply, edit, mark as spam or delete. By default, your site will moderate all comments from new people. We also have Akismet spam protection installed.

Appearance

The Appearance tool allows you to change the look and feel of your site. We have over 50 themes loaded and themes can be changed at any time. Click on each theme to preview what it will look like before you decide.  Any options that come with the theme you have selected will be located under the Appearance menu.

(Note: If you change your theme and have customized your widgets, they may seem to disappear from your site. They are still available under Appearance > Widgets in the Inactive Widget section. Simply drag them back to the sidebar in your new theme.)

Users

The Users tool shows you the people contributing to your site. You can add other people who have a UCI email address to your site as authors, editors, contributors, etc. You may also edit your profile here.

Tools

The Tools tool has a couple of WordPress specific tools for your browser. You can also import your posts or comments from other blogs to your site.

Settings

The Settings tool is the main area to set preferences or properties for your site.

WordPress Interface Part-1

Lecture-3 

Under Standing of WORD-PRESS Interface

  • Admin Bar
  • Dashboard Overview

The Admin Interface gives you access to the features of WordPress. It is organized into four sections: the Admin Bar,  Navigation Toolbar, the Work Area and the Footer.

Admin Bar

The Admin Bar is available when you are logged in to your site. You will see it from the public view and from the admin view.

From the Admin Bar you can easily access the following:

  • WordPress Logo
    • About WordPress
    • Help & Documentation
  • My Sites
    • If are a member of more than one site hosted on Sites@UCI, you can access your other sites from the My Sites drop down menu.
  • Your Site – Links to the public view of your site.
  • Comments – Administer any comments on your site.
  • + New – (Note: If you do not have all of these options, you may not have a role with sufficient privileges.)
    • Post
    • Page
    • Media
    • Link
    • User
  • Howdy, Your Name
    • Edit My Profile
    • Logout link

Work Area

The large area in the middle of the screen is the Work Area which changes as navigation choices in the Navigation Toolbar are selected. When you first log in, the work area shows the Dashboard which gives you an overview of your site.

Navigation Toolbar

The main navigation toolbar is located on the left side of the screen.  It contains the Dashboard and all of your site tools.

Dashboard

The Dashboard is located in the upper left corner of the page.  Click on Dashboard to load the Dashboard and automatically expand the Dashboard menu.

Screen Options

You can decide what you want to see on the screen by selecting the Screen Options tab. This will expand the “Show on screen” options and you can select what you want to see in the Dashboard. The following options are the default.

  • At a Glance panel – Shows how many posts, pages, categories, tags, comments and spam you have on your site, is a concise overview of what’s going on, and also displays the current theme selected and how many widgets you are using. If your site is Private, it will display “Search Engines Discouraged”.
  • Activity– includes Recently Published content and Recent Comments
  • Other WordPress News– News about WordPress
  • Welcome– A getting started Welcome screen. (Hidden by default.)
  • Quick Draft– a quick way to create a post draft. (Hidden by default.)

Navigation Tools

WordPress has “fly-out” navigation tools. Hover over each section to see the options underneath. If you click on one of the sections, that section will expand and stay open while you are on that set of tools.

Posts

The Posts tool is where you can add new posts, edit existing posts and edit tags and categories for your posts.

Media

The Media tool includes your Library that lists any images, audio and video files you have already uploaded. The Add New link helps you upload new media to your library.

Oracle Mcqs Set-1

  1. The “g” in Oracle 10g or 11g stands for _________
  • Gird
  • Gateway
  • Guide

2.The person who is having central control over data and programs accessing that data__________

  • Developer
  • DBA
  • Programmer

3.All but which of the following are physical objects:

  • Buttons
  • Canvases
  • Items
  • Blocks

4.The “i” in Oracle 8i stands for “improved”

  • False
  • True

5.How is an alert displayed to the user?

  • As a multi-line message on the canvas
  • As a single line of text on the hint line
  • As a separate modal window in the middle of the screen
  • As another forms module

6. RDF extension of _____________

  • Report developer
  • Form Developer
  • Graph developer

7. The process of converting complex data structures into simple, stable data structures is referred to as:

  • Normalization
  • De Normalization
  • process modeling

8. When Button Pressed is type of ______________

  • Trigger
  • Alert
  • Message 

9. Which SQL statement is used to update data in a database? 

  • A. SAVE
  • B. MODIFY
  • C. UPDATE

10. Which SQL statement is used to delete data from a database? 

  • DELETE 
  • TRUNCATE
  • REMOVE

11. Executable file of oracle form developer is ______________

  • .sql
  • .fmb
  • .fmx
  • None of above

12. Executable file of oracle form developer is ______________

  • .sql
  • .fmb
  • .fmx
  • None of above

13. ________ is heart of any software

  • Reports
  • Layout
  • Graph

14. Display item of form developer object is used for _______________

  • Input purpose
  • Selection Purpose
  • Only show value

15. With SQL, how do you select all the columns from a table named “Student”?

  • SELECT [all] FROM Student
  • SELECT Student
  • SELECT * FROM Student

 

16. Which SQL keyword is used to sort the result-set?

  • ORDER
  • SORT
  • SORT BY
  • ORDER BY

17 Oralce is ______________ types of language

  • RDBMS
  • DBMS
  • Oracle is not database

18. A tuple is also known as a(n) ___________________________ .

  • Column
  • Row
  • Table

19. PL stands for ______________________

  • Procedure Language
  • Programming Language
  • None of these

20. Which command is used to create new user?

  • Alter user
  • Create User
  • Identified by user

21. The name of a table can be changed with Alter command.

  • True
  • False

22. Which of the following is not a type of item?

  • Check boxes
  • Text items
  • Java Beans
  • Frames
  • Buttons

23. What operator performs pattern matching?

  • LIKE operator
  • 2) Plus Operator
  • Greater Operator

24. Which command is used to store or save the query?

  • Save
  • Store
  • Get

25. The common SQL*Plus command which causes the results of PL/SQL statements to be displayed is

  • Set serveroutput on
  • Severouput enable
  • Set serveroutput off

26. Which command displays the SQL command in the SQL buffer, and then executes it?

  • Get
  • Run
  • Save

27. PL/SQL blocks contain __________________sections

  • One
  • Two
  • Three

28. _____________section is the first section of the PL/SQL block.

  • Declare
  • Begin
  • End;

29. PB is prefix of __________ object

  • Push Button
  • Combo box
  • Display Item

30. Alert box show the ______________ on screen

  • Message
  • Error
  • None of above

31. Which Statement is used to show structure of specific table?

  • Describe Statement
  • Clear screen Statement
  • Select Statement

32. Contacting (||) Operator is used to combine ___________ value in a single value.

  • String
  • Numeric
  • Picture

33. Extension of Menu file is ____________

  • .MMB
  • FMX
  • RDF

34. Which SQL statement is used to extract data from a database? 

  • SELECT 
  • GEt
  • OPEN
  • EXTRACT

Computer History 2001s-2006s

COMPUTERS Development 

Year

Development

2001

Telemedicine uses satellite technology and videoconferencing to broad cast consultations and to perform distant surgeries. Robots are used for complex and precise tasks. Computer-aided surgery uses virtual reality to assist with training and planning procedures. Application service providers offer a return to a centralized computing environment, in which large mega servers warehouse data,information, and software, so it is accessible using a variety of devices from any location.

2002

Hand spring begins shipping the Treo™communicator, a handheld computer with cellular telephone, e-mail, text messaging,and wireless Web capabilities. Microsoft launches its .NET strategy, which is a new environment for developing and running software applications featuring ease of development of Web-based services. Users of applications immediately see the benefit of .NET as instant access to data and services in the context of their current task

2003

 

After several years of negligible sales, the Tablet PC is reintroduced as the next-generation mobile PC. The light weight device, the size of a three-ring notebook, is ideal for people on the go. It runs Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, has wireless capabilities, and features natural input capabilities including pen and speectechnologies. Computer manufacturers and software companies integrate high-end PCs and entertainment devices. The result is PCs with great entertainment functions that let you watch and record TV, burn CDs and DVDs, play games, and more.

2004

 

Companies such as Real Networks,Microsoft, Sony, and Wal-Mart stake out turf in the online music store business started by Apple Computer. In the previous year, Apple’s iTunes Music Store Web sites old nearly 20 million songs for 99 cents each. Flat-panel LCD monitors over take bulky CRT monitors as the popular choice of computer users. Although flat-panel LCD monitors cost more, they offer several advantages including physical size, weight,true display size, better poweconsumption, and no radiation emission.USB Flash Drives, which are small enough to fit on a key chain but can store up to 4 billion characters, become a cost-effective way to transport data and information from one computer to another.

2005

 

The Mozilla Foundation, the creators of the free open source Firefox browser, predicts that by the end of 2005, it will have 10 percent of the browser market, primarily at the expense of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (IE) security-plagued browser. Microsoft unveils Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005. This operating system allows users to access the routine capabilities of a Windows XP-based PC while focusing on delivering media content such as music,digital photography, movies, and television.

2006

 

In response to the recent release of Microsoft’s Xbox 360, Sony launches its Play Station 3 and Nintendo launches its Revolution. Sony won the previounumbers games with worldwide sales of 90 million Play station 2 consoles to Microsoft’s 24 million Xbox consoles and Nintendo’s 21 million GameCube consoles. IBM produces the fastest supercomputer called Blue Gene/L. It can perform approximately 28 trillion calculations in the time it takes you to blink your eye, or about one-tenth of a second. The Blue Gene/L primarily is used to explore hydrodynamics, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, climate modeling, and financial modeling.

Computer History 1970s-2000s

COMPUTERS Development 

Year

Development

1970:

Fourth-generation computers, built with chips that use LSI (large-scale integration) arrive.While the chips used in 1965 contained as many as 1,000 circuits, the LSI chip contains as many as 15,000.

1971:

Dr. Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation develops a microprocessor, or micro programmable computer chip, the Intel 4004.

1975:

Ethernet, the first local area network (LAN),is developed at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) by Robert Metcalf. The LAN allows computers to communicate and share software, data, and peripherals.Initially designed to link minicomputers,Ethernet will be extended to personal computers.

1976:

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak build the first Apple computer. A subsequent version, the Apple II, is an immediate success. Adopted by elementary schools, high schools, and colleges, for many students the Apple II is their first contact with the world of computers.

1979:

VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program written by Bob Frankston and Dan Bricklin, is introduced. Originally written to run on Apple II computers, VisiCalc will be seen as the most important reason for the acceptance of personal computers in the business world. The first public online information services, CompuServe and the Source, are founded.

1980:

IBM offers Microsoft Corporation co-founder,Bill Gates, the opportunity to develop the operating system for the soon-to-be announced IBM personal computer. With the development of MS-DOS, Microsoft achieves tremendous growth and success.Alan Shugart presents the Winchester hard drive, revolutionizing storage for personal computers.

1981:

The IBM PC is introduced, signaling IBM’s entrance into the personal computer marketplace. The IBM PC quickly garners the largest share of the personal computer market and becomes the personal computer of choice in business.

1982:

3,275,000 personal computers are sold,almost 3,000,000 more than in 1981.Compaq, Inc. is founded to develop and market IBM-compatible PCs. Hayes introduces the 300 bps smart modem. The modem is an immediate success.

1983:

Instead of choosing a person for its annual award, TIME magazine names the computer Machine of the Year for 1982,acknowledging the impact of computers on society.

1984:

IBM introduces a personal computer, called the PC AT, that uses the Intel 80286 microprocessor. Hewlett-Packard announces the first LaserJet printer for personal computers.

1987:

Several personal computers utilizing the powerful Intel 80386 microprocessor are introduced. These machines perform processing that once only large systems could handle.

1988:

Microsoft surpasses Lotus Development Corporation to become the world’s top software vendor.

1989:

The Intel 486 becomes the world’s first 1,000,000 transistor microprocessor. It crams 1.2 million transistors on a .4″ x .6″sliver of silicon and executes 15,000,000 instructions per second — four times as fast as its predecessor, the 80386 chip.

1991:

World Wide Web Consortium releases standards that describe a framework for linking documents on different computers.

1992:

Microsoft releases Windows 3.1, the latest version of its Windows operating system.Windows 3.1 offers improvements such as True Type fonts, multimedia capability, and object linking and embedding (OLE). In two months, 3,000,000 copies of Windows 3.1 are sold.

1993:

Several companies introduce computer systems using the Pentium® processor from Intel. The Pentium® chip is the successor to the Intel 486 processor. It contains 3.1 million transistors and is capable of performing 112,000,000 instructions per second.

1994:

Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen found Netscape and launch Netscape Navigator 1.0, a browser for the World Wide Web.Linus Torvalds creates the Linux kernel, a UNIX-like operating system that here leases free across the Internet for further enhancement by other programmers.

1995:

Sun Micro systems launches Java, an object-oriented programming language that allows users to write one application for a variety of computer platforms. Java becomes one of the hotter Internet technologies.

1996:

U.S. Robotics introduces Palm Pilot, a hand held personal organizer. The Palm Pilot’s user friendliness and low price make it a standout next to more expensive personal digital assistants (PDAs). An innovative technology called web tv combines television and the Internet by providing viewers with tools to navigate the Web.

1997:

Deep Blue, an IBM supercomputer, defeats world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a six-game chess competition. Millions of people follow the nine-day long rematch on IBM’s Web site. Fifty million users are connected to the Internet and World Wide Web.

 1998:

More than 10,000,000 people take up telecommuting, which is the capability of working at home and communicating with an office via computer. Increasingly more firms embrace telecommuting to helincrease productivity, reduce absenteeism,and provide greater job satisfaction. E-commerce, or electronic commerce — the marketing of goods and services over the Internet — booms. Companies such as Dell, E*TRADE, and Amazon.com spur online shopping, allowing buyers to obtain everything from hardware and software to financial and travel services, insurance,automobiles, books, and more

 1999:

Intel releases its Pentium® III processor,which provides enhanced multimedia capabilities. U.S. District Judge Thomas Pen field Jackson rules in the antitrust law suit brought by the Department of Justice and 19 states that Microsoft used its monopoly power to stifle competition.

 2000:

Shawn Fanning, 19, and his company,Napster, turn the music industry upside down by developing software that allows computer users to swap music files with one another without going through a centralized file server. The Recording Industry of America, on behalf of five media companies, sues Napster for copyright infringement.

Computer Histroy 1930s-1960s

COMPUTERS Development 

Year

Development

1937:

 

Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry design and build the first electronic digital computer. Their machine, the Atanasoff Berry: Computer, or ABC, provides the foundation for advances in electronic digital computers.

Alan Turing: develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine

1943:

 

During World War II, British scientist AlanTuring designs the Colossus, an electroniccomputer created for the military to break German codes. The computer’s existence is kept secret until the 1970s.

1945:

 

Dr. John von Neumann writes a brilliant paper describing the stored program concept. His breakthrough idea, where memory holds both data and stored programs, lays the foundation for all digital computers that have since been built.

1946:

 

Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert,Jr. complete work on the first large scale electronic, general purpose digital computer. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)weighs thirty tons, contains 18,000 vacuum tubes, occupies a thirty:by:fifty:foot space, and consumes 160 kilowatts of power. The first time it is turned on, lights dim in an entire section of Philadelphia.

1947:

 

William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent the transfer resistance device, eventually called the transistor. The transistor would revolutionize computers, proving much more reliable than vacuum tubes.

1951:

 

The first commercially available electronic digital computer, the UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer), is introduced by Remington Rand. Public awareness of computers increases when the UNIVAC I, after analyzing only five percent of the popular vote, correctly predicts that Dwight. Eisenhower will win the presidential election.

1952:

 

Dr. Grace Hopper considers the concept of reusable software in her paper, “The Education of a Computer.” The paper describes how to program a computer with symbolic notation instead of the detailed machine language that had been used.

1953:

 

The IBM model 650 is one of the first widely used computer systems. Originally planning to produce only 50 machines, the system is so successful that eventually IBM manufactures more than 1,000. With the IBM 700 series of machines, the company will dominate the mainframe market for the next decade. Core memory, developed in the early 1950s, provides much larger storage capacity than vacuum tube memory.

1957:

 

FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation), an efficient, easy-to-use programming language, is introduced by John Backus. The IBM 305 RAMAC system is the first to use magnetic disk for external storage. The system provides storage capacity similar to magnetic tape that previously was used, but offers the advantage of semi: random access capability.

1958:

 

Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments invents the integrated circuit, which lays the foundation for high: speed computers and large: capacity memories. Computers built with transistors mark the beginning of the second generation of computer hardware.

1959:

 

More than 200 programming languages have been created. IBM introduces two smaller, desk: sized computers: the IBM 1401 for business and the IBM 1620 for scientists. The IBM 1620 initially is called the CADET,but IBM drops the name when campus wags claim it is an acronym for, Can’t Add,Doesn’t Even Try.

1960:

 

COBOL, a high: level business application language, is developed by a committee headed by Dr. Grace Hopper. COBOL uses English: like phrases and runs on most business computers, making it one of the more widely used programming languages.

1964:

 

The number of computers has grown to18,000. Third: generation computers, with their controlling circuitry stored on chips,are introduced. The IBM System/360computer is the first family of compatible machines, merging science and business lines

1965:

 

Dr. John Kemeny of Dartmouth leads the development of the BASIC programming language. BASIC will be widely used on personal computers. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the first minicomputer, the PDP:8. The machine is used extensively as an interface for time: sharing systems

1968:

 

Alan Shugart at IBM demonstrates the first regular use of an 8: inch floppy (magnetic storage) disk. In a letter to the editor titled, “GO TO Statements Considered Harmful,”Dr. Edsger Dijsktra introduces the concept of structured programming, developing standards for constructing computer programs. Computer Science Corporation becomes the first software company list edon the New York Stock Exchange.

1969:

 

Under pressure from the industry, IBM announces that some of its software will be priced separately from the computer hardware. This unbundling allows software firms to emerge in the industry. The ARPANET network, a predecessor of the Internet, is established.

Fundamental of Computer II

***Fundamental of Computer***MCQ’s

1)            Components of computer are_______________.

  1. A) 3                 B) 2                        C) 4                        D) 1

2)            Communication devices are _____________.

  1. A) Speaker                 B) Modem                          C) CD / DVD                        D) Floppy

3)            System unit consist of_________.

  1. A) Main Circuit Board B) Processor  C) Power Supply  D) All a, b, c

4) Peripheral devices are________.

  1. A) Printer                B) Processor                       C) Speaker

5) In which unit compare two quantities?             D) Modem

  1. A) Arithmetic Unit B) Control Unit C) Logic Unit

6) Accelerated graphics port is known as__________.

  1. A) PCI B) AGP                  C) ISA                    D) UPC

7)            Barcode has a series of numbers known as________.

  1. A) UCP B) UPC                  C) NIC  D) a, b

8)            Fingerprint Reader is used in __________.         D) Processing Unit

  1. A) Login a computer B) Surgery C) Medicine

9) ROM stores data__________.                             D) Playing Music

  1. A) Temporarily B) Permanently C) Partially

10) RAM stands for_________.                D) Fully

  1. A) Root Access Memory B) Random Available Memory                    C) Read Able Memory D) Random Access Memory

11)          A processor is also known as________.

  1. A) CPU      B) UPS  C) UPC                  D) PUS

12)          Robot is also known as__________.

  1. A) Civil Agents B) Electronic Agents  C) Electrical Agents D) Mechanical Agents

13) Barcode Reader is an__________ device.

  1. A) Storage                B) Output                            C) Display                            D) Input

14) RAM is used for_________ storage.

  1. A) Temporarily B) Partially C) Permanently  D) Fully

15) Two main components of processor are________ &_______.

  1. A) AU , LU                B) CU , LU                            C) ALU , CU                         D) AU ,CU

16)          ROM is __________ memory.

  1. A) Volatile                B) Versatile                         C) non volatile  D) a , b

17)          PCI is faster slot used for ___________ .

  1. A) Sound                B) Graphics                         C) Network Inter face Card

18)          Memory consists of __________ chips.

  1. A) Electronic                 B) Magnetic                        C) Silicon                              D) b , c

19)          __________ Work like a traffic policeman.

  1. A) AU                 B) LU                     C) ALU  D) CU

20)______ is a device that capture fingerprint.

  1. A) Barcode Reader B) Card Reader C) Fingerprint Reader

21) ________ is a box where processing takes place.     D) b, c

  1. A) Electronic Unit B) Arithmetic Unit C) System Unit

22) All computer components are plugged with ________.         D) Logic Unit

  1. A) Circuit Board B) Motherboard                               C) Processing Board         D) a, b

23)          The ______ main components of processor.

  1. A) One      B) Two                  C) Three                               D) Four

24)          Logical and mathematical problems are solved by _________.

  1. A) LU                 B) CU                     C) ALU  D) AU

25)          Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & division performed by _________.

  1. A) LU                 B) AU                    C) CU                     D) b, c

 

26)          Logic unit compares two quantities and give answer in which form?

  1. A) True B) Yes    C) False                D) a, c

27)          _______ is working space of computer.

  1. A) B) Execution                 C) Processing                     D) b, c

28)          ____contain start up instruction of computer and information about its hardware.

  1. A) Register                 B) RAM                 C) Address Bus                  D) ROM

29)          ___________gives a computer capability to control a storage device, an input device.

  1. A) Expansion Slots                 B) Expansion Cards                          C) PCI                    D) ISA

30)          _________ is a machine which is controlled by software.

  1. A) Scanner                 B) Barcode Reader                          C) Fingerprint Reader                     D) Robot

31)          AGP stands for __________.

  1. A) Accelerated Graph Port B) Accelerated Graphic Port C) Access Graphic Port

32) PCI stands for _____________.

  1. A) Peripheral Component Internet                 B) Program Component Interconnect
  2. C) Peripheral Component Interconnect D) Permanent Control Internet

33) ISA stands for _____________.

  1. A) Industry Standard Art B) Internet Standard Architecture
  2. C) Industry Standard Architecture D) Industry Sound Architecture

34) PCI slot is used for _________, graphic cards.

  1. A) Internet Card B) Network Card                 C) Modem Card                D) Sound Card

35)          _______ Slot is used for 3D graphics cards.

  1. A) ISA B) PCI    C) AGP                  D) PCI, AGP

36)          ________ is used to transmit data over telephone wires.

  1. A) Internet                B) Network

37) NIC stands for _________.                 C) Modem                          D) b , c

  1. A) Network Internet Connect                B) Network Internal Card
  2. C) Network Interface Card D) Network Interconnect Card

38)          _________ means information is lost when the power is swathed off.

  1. A) Erasable                 B) Non Volatile                  C) Volatile                           D) a , c

39)          Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor & printer are also known as ___________?

  1. A) Input B) Output C) Peripherals D) a , b

40)          System unit can be found in two shapes ______ .

  1. A) Laptop                B) Tower                              C) Desktop                          D) b , c

41)          ____slot is hard to find in modern computer.

  1. A) AGP      B) PCI    C) ISA                    D) UPC

42)          _________slot is a long narrow socket fixed on motherboard.

  1. A) Expression                 B) Execution                       C) Transmission                D) Expansion

43)          __________is used in security systems and criminal investigation.

  1. A) Card Reader B) Sound Reader  C) Barcode Reader D) Fingerprint Reader

44) A video game is played by using _________card.

  1. A) Modem                B) Sound                              C) Graphic                           D) Network Interface

45)          Which of the following is highest speed slot?

  1. A) ISA        B) PCI    C) AGP                  D) a, c

46)          Which of the following part of CPU controlled the sequence the instructions?

  1. A) LU                 B) AU                    C) CU                     D) ALU

47)          Arithmetic operation is performed by __________.

  1. A) LU                 B) AU                    C) ALU  D) CU

48)          A processor acts like a __________.

  1. A) Lever                 B) Heart                               C) Brain                D) Kidney

49)          There are _______ types of memory.

  1. A) Two      B) three                               C) One                  D) Four

50)          Processor is fixed on ________.

  1. A) Fan board                 B) Chipboard                      C) Motherboard
  2. D) Expansion board

51)          __________ is a place where processing takes place.

  1. A) Monitor                 B) CPU                  C) Ram                  D) System Unit

52)          Physical parts of computer are known as ____________.

  1. A) Operating System                 B) Software                        C) Hardware
  2. D) System Unit

 

Questions with Answers Questions with Answers  Questions with Answers-1 Questions with Answers
1) 2 2) Modem 3) All a,b,c 4) Printer
5) Logic Unit 6) AGP 7) UPC 8) Login a Computer
9) Permanently 10) Random Access Memory 11) CPU 12) Mechanical Agent
13) Input 14) Temporarily 15) CU, ALU 16) Non Volatile
17) All a,b,c 18) Electronic 19) CU 20) Fingerprint Reader
21)System Unit 22) a,b 23)Two 24)ALU
25)AU 26)a,c 27)Memory 28)ROM
29)Expansion Card 30)Robot 31)Accelerated Graphic Port 32)Peripheral Component Interconnect
33) Industry standard architecture 34) Sound Card 35) AGP 36) Modem
37) Network Interface Card 38) Volatile 39) Peripheral 40)b,c
41) ISA 42) Expansion 43) Fingerprint Reader 44) Graphics
45) AGP 46) CU 47) AU 48) Brain
49) Two 50) Motherboard 51) System Unit 52) Hardware

 

Generation of computers:

Five Generation of computers:

  1. First Generation Of Computer Period : 1940-1956
  2. Second Generation Of Computer Period: 1956-1963
  3. Third Generation Of Computer Period: 1964-1975(onwards)
  4. Fourth Generation Of Computer Period : – 1975-Present
  5. Fifth Generation Of Computer

FIRST GENERATION 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are first – generation computing devices.

CHARACTERISTICS

  • First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
  • The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
  • They were very large in size.
  • Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
  • Machine language was used for programming.
  • First generation computers were unreliable.
  • They were difficult to program and use.

SIGNIFICANT MACHINES:

Mark-I, EDSAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC-I and ENIAC

ADVANTAGES:

  • After long history of computations, the 1G computers are able to process any tasks in milliseconds.
  • The hardware designs are functioned and programmed by machine languages (Languages close to machine understanding).
  • Vacuum tube technology is very much important which opened the gates of digital world communication.

DISADVANTAGES:

  • Size of that machines are very big
  • Required large amount of energy for processing
  • Very expensive
  • Heat generated and need air conditioning.
  • Not portable ( never take from one place to other)
  • Comparing with 5G computers, these computers are slow in speed.
  • Not reliable
  • In order to get proper processing, maintenance is required continuously.

Second Generation – 1956-1963: Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s.

* Smaller, faster and cheaper.

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
  • Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
  • They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
  • They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
  • They took comparatively less computational time.
    Assembly language was used for programming.
  • Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.

SIGNIFICANT MACHINES:

IBM 7074 series, CDC 164, IBM 1400 Series.

ADVANTAGES:

  • If we compare it with G1 computer, less expensive and smaller in size.
  • Fast in speed
  • Less head generated as G1 computers generate more.
  • Need low power consumption
  • Language after machine language for programming, in G2 assembly language (COBOL, FORTRON) is introduced for programming.

DISADVANTAGES:

  • Maintenance of machine is required.
  • Air conditioning required still as heat causes to process slowly.
  • These computers are not used as personal system.
  • Preferably used for commercial purposes

 

Third Generation – 1964-1975: Integrated Circuits the development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. First Integrated Circuit

CHARACTERISTICS

  • IC was used instead of transistors in the third generation computers.
  • Third generation computers were smaller in size and cheaper as compare to the second generation computers.
  • They were fast and more reliable.
  • High level language was developed.
  • Magnetic core and solid states as main storage.
  • They were able to reducecomputational time and had low maintenance cost.
  • Input/output devices became more sophisticated.

SIGNIFICANT MACHINES:

IBM System/360 & IBM 370, PDP-8, DEC, UNIVAC 1108, UNIVAC 9000.

ADVANTAGES:

  • Smaller in size
  • Low cost then previous
  • Low power consumption
  • Easy to operate
  • Portable
  • Input devices introduced and that make user easy to interact with it like keyboard, mouse etc
  • External Storage medium introduced like floppy & tape.

DISADVANTAGES:

  • IC chips are still difficult to maintain
  • Need complex technology.

Fourth Generation – 1975-(Onwards): Microprocessors the microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.

CHARACTERISTICS

  • The fourth generation computers have microprocessor-based systems.
  • They are the cheapest among all the computer generation.
  • The speed, accuracy and reliability of the computers were improved in fourth generation computers.
  • Many high-level languages were developed in the fourth generation such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL and C language.
  • A Further refinement of input/output devices was developed.
  • Networking between the systems was developed.

SIGNIFICANT MACHINES:

Intel processors, AMD processor based machines

ADVANTAGES:

  • Smaller in size
  • High processing speed
  • Very reliable
  • For general purpose
  • More external storage mediums are introduced like CD-ROM, DVD-ROM.
  • GUIs developed for interaction

Disadvantages:

  • There are a lot of cases required for air conditioning.
  • Highly sophisticated production was easier and cheaper.

Fifth Generation of Computer (1980 onwards): Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.

CHARACTERISTICS

  • The fifthgeneration computers will use super large scale integrated chips.
  • They will have artificial intelligence.
  • They will be able to recognize image and graphs.
  • Fifthgeneration computer aims to be able to solve highly complex problem including decision making, logical reasoning.
  • They will be able to use more than one CPU for faster processing speed.
  • Fifthgeneration computers are intended to work with natural language.

SIGNIFICANT MACHINES:

ULAIC Technology, Artificial intelligence etc

PROPERTIES

  • Program independent
  • Have thinking and analysis by its own
  • Voice reorganization & biometric devices
  • Self-organization and learning

Advantages:

  • It is more reliable and works faster.
  • Available in different sizes with unique features.

Disadvantages:

  • Developing infrastructure needs high cost.
  • Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.
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