Lecture -2

Practical Installation & Configuration XAMPP and Word press.

First download XAMP site for here


After downloading XAMPP, you will need to click and run the installer.

XAMPP will ask you where you want to install the software and which packages you’d like to install. The default settings will work for most users. Keep clicking on ‘Next’ to finish the setup wizard.

This will launch the XAMPP control panel. Go ahead and click on the start button next to Apache and MySQL.

XAMPP will now start Apache and MySQL. You may see a Windows Firewall notification, it is important that you click on ‘Allow Access’ button for both applications to run on your computer.

Once both applications are started their names will be highlighted in Green.

You have successfully installed XAMPP on your computer.

Now you are ready to create a local website and install WordPress using XAMPP.

Installing  WordPress Site with XAMPP

 Visit the WordPress.org website and click on the ‘Download WordPress’ button.

After downloading WordPress, you need to extract the zip file, and you will see a wordpress folder. You need to copy this folder.

Next, head over to your XAMPP installation folder.

On Windows it would be C:/Program Files/XAMPP/htdocs

Paste the wordpress folder you copied earlier inside htdocs.

Next, you need to open your favorite web browser and visit localhost/ntp. You will see a page like this:

This page will tell you that WordPress needs a database name, database username, password, and host information.

Let’s create a database for your WordPress site.

You’ll need to open a new browser tab and visit localhost/phpmyadmin/. This will launch phpMyAdmin app that comes pre-installed with XAMPP. It allows you to easily manage your databases using a simpler interface.

You would need to click on Databases, provide a name for your new database, and then click on the create button to continue.

Now that you have created a database, you can use it for your WordPress site.

Switch back to /localhost/ntp/ browser tab and click on the ‘Let’s Go’ button.

On the next screen, you will be asked to provide your WordPress database information.

Enter the database name you created earlier. Your username is ‘root’ and you should leave the password field blank. For the database host field, you need to use localhost.

See the screenshot below:

Once you are done, click on the ‘Submit’ button to continue.

You will need to create this file in your website’s root folder.

After creating the file, paste the text you copied earlier inside it. Next, you need to save the file and return back to WordPress installer to continue.

In the next step, WordPress will ask you to provide information about your website. First, enter the title you want to use for this site.

After that you need to enter a username, password, and an email address for your admin account.

Once you have filled all the information, click on the ‘Install WordPress’ button to continue.

WordPress will now run the installation and prompt you to login once it’s done.

You can login to your website by going to /localhost/ntp/wp-admin page and use the username / password that you entered during installation to login.


Good luck. ………HAVE A NICE DAY………

if you have any  confusion  kindly put your comments

Synonym & Antonym Part-2

Abatemoderate, decreaseaggravate, supplement
Abjectdespicable, servilecommendable, praiseworthy
Abjureforsake, renounceapprove, sanction
bhorDisdain , Hate , Abominate , Dislike , Scorn , DespiseDevotion , Fondness , Passion , Love , Attachment , Admiration , Affection
AboveboardHonest , Frank , Straightforward , Sincere , Open , TrustworthyDeceitful , Sneaky , Dishonest , Ambiguous , Crooked , Crafty
AbridgeShorten , Compress , Abstract , Reduce , Curtail , AbbreviateEnlarge , Lengthen , Expand , Increase , Extend
Abortivevain, unproductiveeffectual productive
Absolvepardon, forgivecompel, accuse
Accordagreement, harmonydisagreement, discord
Acrimonyharshness, bitternesscourtesy, benevolence
Adamantstubborn, inflexibleflexible, soft
Adherentfollower, disciplerival, adversary
Adjunctjoined, addedseparated, subtracted
Admonishcounsel, reproveapprove, applaud
Adversitymisfortune, calamityprosperity, fortune
Alienforeigner, outsidernative, resident
Allaypacify, sootheaggravate, excite
Alleviateabate, relieveaggravate, enhance
Allureentice, fascinaterepulse, repel
Amplifyenlarge, extendlessen, contract
Antipathyhostility, aversionadmiration, fascination
Apathyunconcern, indifferenceconcern, care
Arraigncharge, blameexculpate, pardon
Audacityboldness, arrogancemildness, cowardice
Authenticgenuine, reliablefictitious, unreal
Awkwardclumsy, roughclever, apt
Axiommaxim, truthabsurdity, blunder
Bafflefrustrate, perplexcompose, facilitate
Barbarousuncivilized, savagecultured, humane
Benevolencehumanity, generositymalevolence, inhumanity
Bewitchingmagical, fascinatingrepulsive, repugnant
Bleakdismal, gloomybright pleasant
Brittledelicate, fragiletough, enduring
Bustlehaste, flurryslowness, quiet
BeneathBelow , Inferior , Under , Down , UnderneathUp , Beyond , Overhead , Over , Above
BenedictionBlessing , Boon , Benison , Prayer , Grace , favor , Gratitude , Baptism , OrisonCurse , Anathema , Bane , Affliction , Malediction
BlunderMistake , Error , Folly , Omission , Fumble , FaultAccuracy , Correct
BoastfulBragging , Braggart , Proud , Pompous , Vain , Arrogant , HaughtyModest , Humble
BraveryCourage , Mettle , Fortitude , Audacity , Gallantry , Heroism , Valour , Daring , BoldnessCowardice , Humility , Fright , Timidity , Dread , Fear
BrevityShort , Laconic , Concise , BriefConfused , Longevity , Loquacious , Verbosity , Garrulity
BristleSwagger , Burst , Rage , AngerConceal , Bury , Hide
BrittleCrisp , Stiff , Fragile , Inflexible , Friable , Delicate , BreakableSupple , Tough , Elastic , Flexible , Hard , Solid , Unbreakable
BrutalSavage , Inhuman , Bestial , Merciless , Cruel , BarbarousTender , Merciful , Compassionate , Humane , Sympathetic , Gentle , Kind
CalamityDisaster , Misfortune , Catastrophe , Mishap , Hardship , Tragedy , Adversity , Trouble , Misery , DistressProsperity , Fortune , Peace , Joy , Happiness , Blessing , Boon , Luck , Windfall , Bliss
CallousHard , Merciless , Indifferent , Cruel , Heartless , Hard-Hearted , Indifferent , Apathetic , Cold , ToughSoft , Gracious , Tender , Humane , Sensitive , Compassionate , Sympathetic , Affectionate
CandidImpartial , Outspoken , Fair , Straightforward , Truthful , Frank , Sincere , Honest , Just ,Deceitful , Double-Dealing , Cunning , Misleading , Crafty , Subtle , Deceptive , Dishonest
CaptureArrest , Occupy , Seize , Conquer , Snatch , Obtain , Catch , Grab , Apprehend , Get , Possession , Take , Attain , Grasp , Acquire , TrapLiberate , Escape , Release , Lose , Acquit , Free
CastigateCriticize , Punish , Blame , Chastise , Scold , Chide , CensureCompliment , Pardon , Spare , Excuse , Condone , Praise
ChaosDisorder , Clutter , Confusion , Bedlam , Jumble , Mess , Agitation , Turmoil , UproarOrder , Discipline , Organization , Calm , Government , System , Harmony , Concord
CogentCompelling , Powerful , Forceful , Rational , Potent , EffectiveWeak , Irrelevant , Invalid , Ineffective , Foolish
CoherentLucid , Rational , Connected , Compact , ConsistentConfused , illogical , Jumbled 
Calamityadversity, misfortunehappiness, fortune
Callousobdurate, unfeelingcompassionate, tender
Calumnydefamation, aspersioncommendation, praise
Capablecompetent, ableincompetent, inept
Captivatecharm, fascinatedisillusion, offend
Captivityimprisonment, confinementfreedom, liberty
Cavitydepth, depressionelevation, projection
Ceaseterminate, desistbegin, originate
Chastevirtuous, puresullied, lustful
Chastisepunish, admonishcheer, encourage
Compassionkindness, sympathycruelty, barbarity
Compriseinclude, containreject, lack
Concedeyield, permitdeny, reject
Concurapprove, agreediffer, disagree
Consentagree, permitobject, disagree
Consequenceeffect, outcomeorigin, start
Consolidatesolidify, strengthenseparate, weaken
Conspicuousprominent, obviousconcealed, hidden
Contemptscorn, disregardregard, praise
Contradictdeny, opposeapprove, confirm
Contrarydissimilar, conflictingsimilar, alike
ControversyDispute , Strife , Argument , Discord , Contention , Conflict , Debate , QuarrelAgreement , Peace , Compromise , Concord , Accord , Harmony
CrabbyBad-tempered , Disagreeable , ill-natured , Sour , Irritable , peevishGood-natured , Cordial , Affable , Pleasant , Amiable , Genial , Sweet
DebaseDegrade , Depress , Corrupt , Dishonor , Disgrace , Defile , Abase , Profane , DepreciateClean , Purify , Honor , Praise , Glorify , Enrich , Uplift
DeceitFraud , Treachery , Deception , Cheating , Hypocrisy , CounterfeitHonesty , Credibility , Truth , Accuracy , Truthfulness , Candor
DeficientWanting , Meager , Lacking , Short , Defective , Scanty , Incomplete , Inadequate , insufficientEnough , Excessive , Adequate , Abundant , Plentiful , Ample , Sufficient , Satisfactory
DefileCorrupt , Degrade , Dirty , Violate , Pollute , Debase , Profane , ContaminateClean , Purify , Honor , Sanctify
DespairDisappointment , Hopelessness , Discouragement , Depression , MiseryHope , Optimism , Courage , Anticipation
DictatorTyrant , Autocrat , Despot , OppressorDemocrat , Follower
DolefulDismal , Gloomy , Miserable , Cheerless , Sad , Melancholy , Mournful , Unhappy , DepressedElated , Glad , Happy , Joyful , Cheerful , Delighted , Jocund
ElegantLuxurious , Polished , Dignified , Fine , Graceful , Refined , Exquisite , PoliteInexpensive , Ugly , Simple , Awkward , Usual , Rough , Vulgar , Rude , Coarle
EloquentExpressive , Vivid , Meaningful , Graceful , SignificantHesitant , Meaningless , Clumsy , Inexpressive , Dull
EruditeLearned , Educated , Enlightened , Academic , Literate , Wise , IntellectualIlliterate , Ignorant
ExoticFascinating , Strange , MarvelousDomestic , Common , Familiar , Ordinary
ExtraordinaryUnusual , Fantastic , Remarkable , Exceptional , Astonishing , Uncommon , AmazingOrdinary , Conventional , Commonplace , Mediocre , Customary , Average , Normal , Usual
FacileQuick , Simple , Eloquent , Fluent , Ready , Easy , SmoothComplex , Hard , Difficult , Clumsy , Awkward , complicated
FalsehoodDeception , Deceit , Fiction , Fabrication , Evasion , LieTruth , Accuracy , Fact , Veracity , Reality , Honesty , Certainty
FameEsteem , Repute , Credit , Prestige , Glory , Honour , Reputation , RenownDisrepute , Dishonour , Notoriety , Obscurity , Oblivion
FatalLethal , Malignant , Mortal , Destructive , DeadlyLife-Giving , Constructive , Helpful , Beneficial
FeebleWeak , Fragile , Impotent , Languid , FrailStrong , Forceful , Vigorous , Firm , Muscular , Powerful , Robust
FelicityHappiness , Glee , Joy , Bliss , Pleasure , Enjoyment , DelightUnhappiness , Calamity , Affliction , Anguish
FeudStrife , Dispute , Contention , Conflict , QuarrelPeace , Concord , Amity , Harmony , Agreement
FilthyNasty , Foul , Unclean , Putrid , Dirty , Impure , Polluted , CorruptImmaculate , Clean , Virtuous , Pure , Decent , Spotless
FlatteryEulogy , Applause , Praise , ComplimentCriticism , Denunciation , Insult , Condemnation , Derogation , Offence
ForbidProhibit , Impede , Disallow , Restrain , Ban , Deny , PreventAllow , Concede , Permit , Authorize , Approve , Assent
FortitudeEndurance , Boldness , Courage , Determination , Resolution , Mettle , Bravery , Strength , ValorCowardice , Fear , Timidity , Weakness ,
FragmentPortion , Crumb , Fraction , Scrap , Part , Segment , PieceWhole , Complete , All , Total , Everything
FraudulentDeceitful , Bogus , False , Fake , Dishonest , Crooked , Deceptive , TreacherousHonest , Legal , Truthful , Trustworthy , Valid , Genuine , Honorable , Upright
FutileFruitless , Barren , Useless , Pointless , Vain , Ineffective , Unproductive , Worthless , SterileRewarding , Useful , Successful , Affective , Fruitful , Worthwhile , Productive
Daintyelegant, delicateclumsy, coarse
Decaycollapse, decomposeflourish, progress
Deceitdeception, artificeveracity, sincerity
Decipherinterpret, revealmisinterpret, distort
Dedicatedevote, consecraterefuse, negate
Deferprolong, suspendaccelerate, expedite
Defilecontaminate, pollutepurify, sanctity
Defrayspend, paydisclaim, repudiate
Deliberatecautious, intentionalrash, sudden
Deliciouspalatable, tastefuldistasteful, unsavoury
Demolishruin, devastaterepair, construct
Deprivedespoil, divestrestore, renew
Deridemock, tauntinspire, encourage
Despicableworthless, shamelessworthy, decent
Disdaindetest, despiseapprove, praise
Eccentricstrange, abnormalnatural, conventional
Ecstasydelight, exultationdespair, calamity, depression
Effacedestroy, obliterateretain, maintain
Elevatedignify, heightendeprecate, denounce
Eliminateexpel, oustrestore, accept
Eloquenceexpression, fluencyhalting, stammering
Encumbrancehindrance, obstacleincentive, stimulant
Endeavourundertake, aspirecease, quit
Enormouscolossal, mammothdiminutive, negligible
Epitomeprecise, exampleincrement, expansion
Equivocaluncertain, hazyobvious, lucid
Eradicatedestroy, exterminatesecure, plant
Esteemrespect, regardridicule, spurn
Eternalperpetual, endlesstemporary, momentary
Evadeavoid, eludeacknowledge, confront
Evidentobvious, apparentobscure, concealed
Fabricateconstruct, producedestroy, dismantle
Fallacydelusion, mistakeveracity, truth
Falterstumble, demurpersist, endure
Fanaticalnarrow-minded, biasedliberal, tolerant
Fantasticfanciful, uncommonordinary, normal
Feebleweak, frailstrong, robust
Ferociouscruel, fiercegentle, sympathetic
Feudstrife, quarrelfraternity, harmony
Fleetingtransient, temporaryenduring, eternal
Flimsytrifling, transparentfirm, tenacious
Fluctuatedeflect, vacillatestabilise, resolve
Forsakedesert, renouncehold maintain
Fragileweak, infirmenduring, tough
Franticviolent, agitatedsubdued, gentle
Frivolouspetty, worthlesssolemn, significant
Frugalityeconomy, providencelavishness, extravagance

Antonyms Part-1 A-D

To acceptTo refuse
To addTo subtract
To admitTo deny
To allowTo forbid
AlreadyNot yet
To agreeTo refuse, to argue
To amuseTo bore
To annoyTo satisfy
To answerTo ask
To argueTo agree
To arrestTo free, to set free
To arriveTo depart, to leave
To askTo answer
To attackTo defend
AttackDefence, protection
AwfulDelicious, nice, pleasant
BackIn front of
Bad luckFortune, good luck
To beginTo end, to stop, to finish
BeginningEnd, ending
BehindIn front of
BigSmall, little
To boreTo amuse, to be interested in
BoringExciting, interesting
To borrowTo lend
BraveCowardly, afraid
To breakTo mend, to fix
To buildTo destroy
To buyTo sell
To catchTo miss, to throw
CentreOutskirts, suburb
ChildAdult, grown-up
To closeTo open
CloudyClear, sunny, bright
Cold (kalt)Hot
Cold (kälte)Heat
To comeTo go
ComedyDrama, tragedy
To connectTo separate
To continueTo interrupt
CorrectFalse, wrong
CowardlyBrave, courageous
To createTo destroy
CruelHuman, kind
To cry (schreien)To whisper
To cry (weinen)To laugh
To damageTo repair
DangerSecurity, safety
DeathBirth, life
To defendTo attack
To denyTo admit
To departTo arrive
To destroyTo build, to create, to form
To dieTo live
DifferentAlike, equal, the same
To divideTo unite
To divorceTo marry
DivorceMarriage, wedding
DryHumid, wet

Synonymous Part-1 A-D

Synonym List for A - D 
To accomplishTo achieve
To accumulateTo build up
To administerTo manage
To admitTo confess
To annoyTo irritate, to bother
To answerTo reply
To appearTo seem
To arriveTo reach
To assureTo guarantee
BacksideBehind, bottom
Bad (not good)Poor, naughty
To bear on sth.To affect
To beatTo defeat
To beginTo start
To behaveTo act
To bring sth. BackTo reintroduce
To bring sth. OnTo cause
To bring sb. UpTo raise
BumBackside, behind, bottom
BusinessCommerce, trade
Busy (telephone)Engaged
CheesyCorny, tacky
To chopTo cut
To citeTo quote
ClassLesson, course
To closeTo shut
To collapseTo break down
To collectTo gather
To condemnTo sentence
To confineTo restrict
To conformTo comply
To confuseTo mix up
Construction (lit.)Interpretation
To consultTo refer to
To conveyTo communicate
To copeTo manage
To deduceTo infer
To demostrateTo protest
To denationalizeTo privatize
To denoteTo indicate, to represent
To depraveTo corrupt
DepravedWicked, evil
To desertTo abandon
To differentiateTo distinguish
To diminishTo decrease
To disappearTo vanish
To disclaimTo deny
To discloseTo reveal
Dull (person)Stupid

Database Part 1

Database  MCQs with Answer key- Part 1

Questions 1:

The ascending order of a data hirerchy is:

  1. bit-byte-record-field-file-database
  2. byte-bit-field-record-file-database
  3. bit-byte-field-record-file-database
  4. bit-byte-file-record-field-database

Question 2:

Which of the following is true of a network structure?

  1. t is a physical representation of the data
  2. It allows a many-to-many relationship
  3. It is conceptually simple
  4. It will be dominant data base of the future

Question 3:

Which of the following is a problem of file management system?

  1. difficult to update
  2. lack of data independence
  3. data redundancy
  4. program dependence
  5. all of above

Question 4:

One data dictionery software package is called

  1. DB/DC dictionary
  2. TOTAL
  4. Datapac
  5. Data Manager

Question 5:

The function of a database is …

  1. to check all input data
  2. to check all spelling
  3. to collect and organize input data
  4. to output data

Question 6:

What is the language used by most of the DBMSs for helping their users to access data?

  1. High level language
  2. SQL
  3. Query Language
  4. 4GL

Question 7:

The model for a record management system might be

  1. handwritten list
  2. a Rolodex card file
  3. a business form
  4. all of above

Question 8:

Primitive operations common to all record management system include

  1. print
  2. sort
  3. look-up
  4. all of above

Question 9:

In a large DBMS

  1. each user can “see” only a small part of the entire database
  2. each subschema contains every field in the logical schema
  3. each user can access every subschema

Question 10:

Information can be transferred between the DBMS and a

  1. spreadsheet program
  2. word processor program
  3. graphics program
  4. all of the above


  1. c    2. b    3. e     4. a     5. c    6. c     7. d    8. c     9. a     10. d


Questions 1:

Which of the following fields in a student file can be used as a primary key?

  1. class
  2. Social Security Number
  3. GPA
  4. Major

Question 2:

Which of the following is not an advantage of the database approach

  1. Elimination of data redundancy
  2. Ability of associate deleted data
  3. increased security
  4. program/data independence
  5. all of the above

Question 3:

Which of the following contains a complete record of all activity that affected the contents of a database during a certain period of time?

  1. report writer
  2. query language
  3. data manipulation language
  4. transaction log
  5. none of the above

Question 4:

In the DBMS approach, application programs perform the

  1. storage function
  2. processing functions
  3. access control
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above


Question 5:

A set of programs that handle a firm’s database responsibilities is called

  1. database management system (DBMS)
  2. database processing system (DBPS)
  3. data management system (DMS)
  4. all of above

Question 6:

Which is the make given to the database management system which is able to handle full text data, image data, audio and video?

  1. full media
  2. graphics media
  3. multimedia
  4. hypertext

Question 7:

A record management system

  1. can handle many files of information at a time
  2. can be used to extract information stored in a computer file
  3. always uses a list as its model
  4. both a and b

Question 8:

A command that lets you change one or more fields in a record is

  1. insert
  2. modify
  3. lookup
  4. none of above

Question 9:

A transparent DBMS

  1. can not hide sensitive information from users
  2. keeps its logical structure hidden from users
  3. keeps its physical structure hidden from users
  4. both b and c

Question 10:

A file produced by a spreadsheet

  1. is generally stored on disk in an ASCII text fromat
  2. can be used as is by the DBMS
  3. both a and b
  4. none of the above


1.b     2.e     3.d      4.b      5.d     6.c      7.b     8.b      9.c      10.a



Questions 1:

Which of the following is not true of the traditional approach to information processing

  1. there is common sharing of data among the various applications
  2. it is file oriented
  3. programs are dependent on the file
  4. it is inflexible
  5. all of the above are true

Question 2:

Which of the following hardware component is the most important to the operation of databasemanagement system?

  1. high resolution video display
  2. printer
  3. high speed, large capacity disk
  4. plotter
  5. mouse

Question 3:

Generalized database management system do not retrieve data to meet routine request

  1. true
  2. false

Question 4:

Batch processing is appropriate if

  1. large computer system is available
  2. only a small computer system is avilbale
  3. only a few transactions are involved
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above

Question 5:

Large collection of files are called

  1. fields
  2. records
  3. database
  4. sectors

Question 6:

Which of the following is not a relational database?

  1. dBase IV
  2. 4th Dimension
  3. FoxPro
  4. Reflex

Question 7:

In order to use a record management system

  1. you need to understand the low level details of how information is stored
  2. you need to understand the model the record management system uses
  3. bother a and b
  4. none of the above

Question 8:

Sort/Report generators

  1. are faster than index/report generators
  2. require more disk space than indexed/report generators
  3. do not need to sort before generating report
  4. both a and b

Question 9:

If a piece of data is stored in two places in the database, then

  1. storage space is wasted
  2. changing the data in one spot will cause data inconsistency
  3. in can be more easily accessed
  4. both and b

Question 10:

An audit trail

  1. is used to make backup copies
  2. is the recorded history of operations performed on a file
  3. can be used to restore lost information
  4. none of the aobve


1.a     2.c     3. b     4.e      5.c     6.d      7.b      8.b      9.d      10.b



Questions 1:

The relational database environment has all of the following components except

  1. users
  2. separate files
  3. database
  4. query languages
  5. database

Question 2:

Database management systems are intended to

  1. eliminate data redundancy
  2. establish relationship among records in different files
  3. manage file access
  4. maintain data integrity
  5. all of the above

Question 3:

One approach to standardization storing of data?

  1. MIS
  2. structured programming
  3. CODASYL specification
  4. none of the above

Question 4:

The language used application programs to request data from the DBMS is
referred to as the

  1. DML
  2. DDL
  3. query language
  4. any of the above
  5. none of the above

Question 5:

The highest  level in the hierarchy of data organization is called

  1. data bank
  2. data base
  3. data file
  4. data record

Question 6:

Choose the RDBMS which supports full fledged client server application development

  1. dBase V
  2. Oracle 7.1
  3. FoxPro 2.1
  4. Ingress

Question 7:

Report generators are used to

  1. store data input by a user
  2. retrieve information from files
  3. answer queries
  4. both b and c

Question 8:

A form defined

  1. where data is placed on the screen
  2. the width of each field
  3. both a and b
  4. none of the above

Question 9:

A top-to-bottom relationship among the items in a database is established by a

  1. hierarchical schema
  2. network schema
  3. relational schema
  4. all of the above

Question 10:

The management information system (MIS) structure with one main computer
system is called a

  1. hierarchical MIS structure
  2. distributed MIS structure
  3. centralized MIS structure
  4. decentralized MIS structure


1.b     2.e     3.c      4.a      5.b     6. b     7.d     8.a      9.a      10.c

Basic Computer Part-1


  1. Mostly which of the following device is used to carry user files?
    A. Floppy Disk B. Hard Disk C. RAM                      D. CDROM
    2. Which device is used to backup the data?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. Tape          C. Network Drive.     D. All of the above
    3. In order to play and hear sound on a computer, one needs:
    A. a sound card and speakers    B. a microphone       C. all of them required
    4. Which of the following are the cheapest memory devices in terms of Cost/Bit?
    A. Semiconductor memories B. Magnetic Disks C. Compact Disks D. Magnetic Tapes
    5. Which of the following are the best units of data on an external storage device?
    A. Bits             B. Bytes        C. Hertz          D. Clock cycles
    6. Which of the following have the fastest access time?
    A. Semiconductor Memories       B. Magnetic Disks    C. Magnetic Tapes D. Compact Disk
    7. Which of the following is a read only memory storage device?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. CDROM   C. Hard Disk D. None of these
    8. Which of the following is a programming language?
    A. Lotus         B. Pascal      C. MS-Excel  D. Netscape
    9. What is a compiler?
    A. A compiler does a conversion line by line as the program is run
    B. A compiler converts the whole of a higher level program code into machine code in one step
    C. A compiler is a general purpose language providing very efficient execution
    10. What is an interpreter?
    A. An interpreter does the conversion line by line as the program is run
    B. An interpreter is the representation of the system being designed
    C. An interpreter is a general purpose language providing very efficient execution
    D. None of the above
    11. When a key is pressed on the keyboard, which standard is used for converting the keystroke into the corresponding bits?
    A. ANSI          B. ASCII         C. EBCDIC    D. ISO
    13. A Pixel is ………
    A. A computer program that draws picture
    B. A picture stored in secondary memory
    C. The smallest resolvable part of a picture
    14. Which device is used as the standard pointing device in a Graphical User Environment?
    A. Keyboard              B. Mouse      C. Joystick D. Track ball
    15. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer?
    A. 2                 B. 10               C. 16               D. 32
    16. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer?
    A. Binary       B. Decimal
    17. Which of the following is not an output device?
    A. Scanner    B. Printer       C. Flat Screen          D. Touch Screen
    18. Which of the following devices have a limitation that we can only store information to it but cannot erase or modify it?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. Hard Disk  C. Tape Drive            D. CDROM
    19. Which technology is used in Compact disks?
    A. Mechanical          B. Electrical   C. Electro Magnetic             D. Laser
    20. Which of the following storage devices can store maximum amount of data?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. Hard Disk            C. Compact Disk      D. Magneto Optic Disk
    21. Which of the following is the largest manufacturer of Hard Disk Drives?
    A. IBM            B. Seagate    C. Microsoft   D. 3M
    22. The programs which are as permanent as hardware and stored in ROM is known as
    A. Hardware              B. Software               C. Firmware  D. ROM ware
    23. Memory unit is one part of
    A. Input device B. Control unit      C. Output device      D. Central Processing Unit
    24.Who built the first Mechanical Calculator
    A. Joseph Marie Jacquard             B. John Mauchly      C. Blaise Pascal      D. Howard Aiken
    25. The earliest calculating devices are
    A. Abacus     B. Clock                     C. Difference Engine          D. None of these
    26. Punched cards were first introduced by
    A. Powers      B. Pascal       C. Jacquard D. Herman Hollerith
    27. Word length of a Personal Computer is ___
    A. 4 bits                      B. 8 bits                     C. 16 bits                   D. 64 bits
    28. Cursor is a ____
    A. Pixel          B. Thin blinking line          C. Pointing device   D. None of these
    29. Operating system, editors, and debuggers comes under?
    A. System Software           B. Application Software      C. Utilities D. None of the above
    30. Which device is required for the Internet connection?
    A. Joystick                 B. Modem     C. CD Drive               D. NIC Card
    31. What does DMA stand for?
    A. Distinct Memory Access             B. Direct Memory Access
    32. When did John Napier develop logarithm?
    A. 1416          B. 1614          C. 1641 D. 1804
    33. A normal CD-ROM usually can store up to __________data?
    A. 680 KB                  B. 680 Bytes              C. 680 MB     D. 680 GB
    34. ATM stands for?
    A. Automatic Talking Machine      B. Automatic Teller Machine       C. Analog Teller Machine
    35. The Second Generation Computer was based on ………….
    A. Vacuum Tube      B. Silicon Chips       C. Transistor           D. Bio Chips
    36. The Third Generation Computer was made with ………….
    A. Vacuum Tube      B. Discrete Components    C. IC               D. Bio Chips
    37. he BIOS is the abbreviation of ………….
    A. Basic Input Output System
  2. What do you call a single point on a computer screen
    A. Cell B. Element C. Pixel          D. Bit
    39. How was the generation of computer classified?
    A. by the device used in memory & processor
    40. Through which device the main components of the computer communicate with each other?
    A. Keyboard              B. System Bus                    C. Monitor D. Memory
    41. Which is a valid program to access the Internet?
    A. Access      B. Front Page           C. Windows Explorer          D. Netscape
    42. Which one is the Low Level Language?
    A. Assembly                         B. Visual Basic                     C. Java D. C++
    43. Which is a volatile memory?
    A. ROM          B. BIOS          C. PROM       D. RAM
    44. The digital signals can be represented by
    A. Binary Codes       B. 0 and 1      C. High and Low      D. all of the above
    45. Which program can be used for email?
    A. Internet Explorer B. Outlook Express           C. NetMeeting          D. FrontPage
    46. Modulator-demodulator is a device that converts:
    A. Digital signal into analog signal                B. Analog signal into digital signal      C. Both A and B
    47. _______ is used for scanning the pictures and putting them in digitized form in the computer.
    A. CD-ROM   B. Plotter        C. Bar-coder             D. Scanner
    48. Animator, 3D Studio, Corel Draw and Flash are………….
    A. Word processors B. Spreadsheet packages             C. Multimedia S/W
  3. Which statement is valid?
    A. 1 KB = 8 bytes B. 1 MB = 8 KB C. 1 KB = 1024 bytes
  4. Which device is used to process data?
    A. CPU B. RAM C. DCU          D. VDU
    51. Who is known as the father of Computer Science?
    A. Charles Babbage          B. Howard Aiken      C. Dr. Herman Hollerith D. Blaise Pascal
    52. What is the capacity of a 3.5” Floppy Disk?
    A. 360KB       B. 720KB       C. 1.2MB        D. 1.44MB
    53. A Personal Computer (PC) is a …………….. Computer.
    A. Super        B. Main Frame          C. Mini           D. Micro
    54. What type of printers are Dot Matrix Printers?
    A. Laser         B. Inkjet          C. Impact      D. Drum
    55. What is the full form of RAM?
    A. Read Access Memory    B. Random Access Memory        C. Rapid access Memory D. none

56. Where as a computer mouse moves over the table surface, the trackball is

57. Stationary b. Difficult to move c. Dragged      d. Moved in small stems

58. Which one of the following input device is user-programmable?

a. Dumb terminal b. Smart terminal c. VDT       d. Intelligent terminal

60. Which computer memory is used for storing programs and data currently being processed by the CPU? a. Mass memory b. Internal memory c. Non-volatile memory          d. PROM

61. Computer instructions written with the use of English words instead of binary machine code is called. a. Mnemonics b. Symbolic code c. Gray codes    d. Opcode

63. CD-ROM a. Is a `semiconductor memory b. Memory register c. Magnetic memory   d. None of the above

64. Which of the following is not a primary storage device? a. Magnetic tape b. Magnetic disk c. Optical disk d. None of the above


1. UNIVAC is
A) Universal Automatic Computer           B) Universal Array Computer
C) Unique Automatic Computer               D) Unvalued Automatic Computer2. The basic operations performed by a computer are
A) Arithmetic operation          B) Logical operation            C) Storage and relative         D) All the above3. The two major types of computer chips are
A) External memory chip             B) Primary memory chip           C) Microprocessor chip  D) Both b and c4. Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers
A) First Generation          B) Second Generation       C) Third Generation       D) Fourth Generation

5. What is the main difference between a mainframe and a super computer?
A) Super computer is much larger than mainframe computers
B) Super computers are much smaller than mainframe computers
C) Supercomputers are focused to execute few programs as fast as possible while mainframe uses its power to execute as many programs concurrently
D) Supercomputers are focused to execute as many programs as possible while mainframe uses its power to execute few programs as fast as possible.

6. ASCII and EBCDIC are the popular character coding systems. What does EBCDIC stand for?
A) Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
B) Extended Bit Code Decimal Interchange Code
C) Extended Bit Case Decimal Interchange Code
D) Extended Binary Case Decimal Interchange Code

7. The brain of any computer system is
A) ALU                       B) Memory           C) CPU                  D) Control unit

8. Storage capacity of magnetic disk depends on
A) tracks per inch of surface
B) bits per inch of tracks
C) disk pack in disk surface
D) All of above

9. The two kinds of main memory are:
A) Primary and secondary
B) Random and sequential
C) ROM and RAM
D) All of above

10. A storage area used to store data to a compensate for the difference in speed at which the different units can handle data is
A) Memory
B) Buffer
C) Accumulator
D) Address

11. Computer is free from tiresome and boardoom. We call it
A) Accuracy
B) Reliability
C) Diligence
D) Versatility

12. Integrated Circuits (Ics) are related to which generation of computers?
A) First generation
B) Second generation
C) Third generation
D) Fourth generation

13. CD-ROM is a
A) Semiconductor memory
B) Memory register
C) Magnetic memory
D) None of above

14. A hybrid computer
A) Resembles digital computer
B) Resembles analogue computer
C) Resembles both a digital and analogue computer
D) None of the above

15. Which type of computers uses the 8-bit code called EBCDIC?
A) Minicomputers
B) Microcomputers
C) Mainframe computers
D) Super computer

16. The ALU of a computer responds to the commands coming from
A) Primary memory
B) Control section
C) External memory
D) Cache memory

17. Chief component of first generation computer was
A) Transistors
B) Vacuum Tubes and Valves
C) Integrated Circuits
D) None of above

18. To produce high quality graphics (hardcopy) in color, you would want to use a/n
A) RGB monitor
B) Plotter
C) Ink-jet printer
D) Laser printer

19. What are the stages in the compilation process?
A) Feasibility study, system design and testing
B) Implementation and documentation
C) Lexical Analysis, syntax analysis, and code generation
D) None of the above

20. Which of the following IC was used in third generation of computers?
D) Both a and b

These 100 MCQ questions from fundamentals of computer is distributed through mcqSets.com. Fundamentals of Computer is one of the most weighted topic on most of the competitive computer jobs exams.

21. The main electronic component used in first generation computers was
A) Transistors
B) Vacuum Tubes and Valves
C) Integrated Circuits
D) None of above

22. A dumb terminal has
A) an embedded microprocessor
B) extensive memory
C) independent processing capability
D) a keyboard and screen

23. One millisecond is
A) 1 second
B) 10th of a seconds
C) 1000th of a seconds
D) 10000th of a seconds

24. The output quality of a printer is measured by
A) Dot per sq. inch
B) Dot per inch
C) Dots printed per unit time
D) All of the above

25. Which of the following was a special purpose computer?
D) All of the above

26. What was the computer invented by Attanasoff and Clifford?
A) Mark I
C) Z3
D) None of above

27. Which of the following storage devices can store maximum amount of data?
A) Floppy Disk
B) Hard Disk
C) Compact Disk
D) Magneto Optic Disk

28. Which computer was considered the first electronic computer until 1973 when court invalidated the patent?
C) Z3

29. A physical connection between the microprocessor memory and other parts of the microcomputer is known as
A) Path
B) Address bus
C) Route
D) All of the above

30. High density double sided floppy disks could store _____ of data
A) 1.40 MB
B) 1.44 GB
C) 1.40 GB
D) 1.44 MB

31. A high quality CAD system uses the following for printing drawing and graphs
A) Dot matrix printer
B) Digital plotter
C) Line printer
D) All of the above

32. Which of the following is not an input device?
B) Optical scanners
C) Voice recognition device
D) COM (Computer Output to Microfilm)

33. The accuracy of the floating-point numbers representable in two 16-bit words of a computer is approximately
A) 16 digits
B) 6 digits
C) 9 digits
D) All of above

34. In most of the IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drivers, memory, expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of the board?
A) Motherboard
B) Daughterboard
C) Bredboard
D) Fatherboard

35. In most IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drives, memory expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of this board?
A) Motherboard
B) Breadboard
C) Daughter board
D) Grandmother board

36. Magnetic disks are the most popular medium for
A) Direct access
B) Sequential access
C) Both of above
D) None of above

37. A technique used by codes to convert an analog signal into a digital bit stream is known as
A) Pulse code modulation
B) Pulse stretcher
C) Query processing
D) Queue management

38. Regarding a VDU, Which statement is more correct?
A) It is an output device
B) It is an input device
C) It is a peripheral device
D) It is hardware item

39. A modern electronic computer is a machine that is meant for
A) Doing quick mathematical calculations
B) Input, storage, manipulation and outputting of data
C) Electronic data processing
D) Performing repetitive tasks accurately

40. When was vacuum tube invented?
A) 1900
B) 1906
C) 1910
D) 1880

41. Which of the following produces the best quality graphics reproduction?
A) Laser printer
B) Ink jet printer
C) Plotter
D) Dot matrix printer

42. Computers with 80286 microprocessor is 
A) XT computer
B) AT comptuers
C) PS/2 computer
D) None of above

43. An application suitable for sequential processing is
A) Processing of grades
B) Payroll processing
C) Both a and b
D) All of above

44. Which of the following is not processing?
A) arranging
B) manipulating
C) calculating
D) gathering

45. The digital computer was developed primarily in
B) Japan

46. Software in computer
A) Enhances the capabilities of the hardware machine
B) Increase the speed of central processing unit
C) Both of above
D) None of above

47. Today’s computer giant IBM was earlier known by different name which was changes in 1924. What was that name?
A) Tabulator Machine Co.
B) Computing Tabulating Recording Co.
C) The Tabulator Ltd.
D) International Computer Ltd.

48. Before a disk drive can access any sector record, a computer program has to provide the record’s disk address. What information does this address specify?
A) Track number
B) Sector number
C) Surface number
D) All of above

49. The arranging of data in a logical sequence is called
A) Sorting
B) Classifying
C) Reproducing
D) Summarizing

50. What is the responsibility of the logical unit in the CPU of a computer?
A) To produce result
B) To compare numbers
C) To control flow of information
D) To do math’s works

These 100 MCQ questions from fundamentals of computer is distributed through mcqSets.com. Fundamentals of Computer is one of the most weighted topic on most of the competitive computer jobs exams.

51. Abacus was the first
A) electronic computer
B) mechanical computer
C) electronic calculator
D) mechanical calculator

52. If in a computer, 16 bits are used to specify address in a RAM, the number of addresses will be
A) 216
B) 65,536
C) 64K
D) Any of the above

53. Instructions and memory address are represented by
A) Character code
B) Binary codes
C) Binary word
D) Parity bit

54. The terminal device that functions as a cash register, computer terminal, and OCR reader is the:
A) Data collection terminal
B) OCR register terminal
C) Video Display terminal
D) POS terminal

55. A set of flip flops integrated together is called ____
A) Counter
B) Adder
C) Register
D) None of the above

56. People often call ______ as the brain of computer system
A) Control Unit
B) Arithmetic Logic Unit
C) Central Processing Unit
D) Storage Unit

57. Which is used for manufacturing chips?
A) Bus
B) Control unit
C) Semiconductors
D) A and b only

58. The value of each bead in heaven is
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 7

59. The first computer introduced in Nepal was
A) IBM 1400
B) IBM 1401
C) IBM 1402
D) IBM1402

60. Mnemonic a memory trick is used in which of the following language?
A) Machine language
B) Assembly language
C) High level language
D) None of above

61. Instruction in computer languages consists of
C) Both of above
D) None of above

62. Which generation of computer is still under development
A) Fourth Generation
B) Fifth Generation
C) Sixth Generation
D) Seventh Generation

63. A register organized to allow to move left or right operations is called a ____
A) Counter
B) Loader
C) Adder
D) Shift register

64. Which was the most popular first generation computer?
A) IBM 1650
B) IBM 360
C) IBM 1130
D) IBM 2700

65. Which is considered a direct entry input device?
A) Optical scanner
B) Mouse and digitizer
C) Light pen
D) All of the above

66. A set of information that defines the status of resources allocated to a process is
A) Process control
C) Register Unit
D) Process description

67. Each set of Napier’s bones consisted of ______ rods.
A) 5
B) 9
C) 11
D) 13

68. BCD is
A) Binary Coded Decimal
B) Bit Coded Decimal
C) Binary Coded Digit
D) Bit Coded Digit

69. When was the world’s first laptop computer introduced in the market and by whom?
A) Hewlett-Packard, 1980
B) Epson, 1981
C) Laplink Traveling Software Inc, 1982
D) Tandy Model-200, 1985

70. From which generation operating systems were developed?
A) First
B) Second
C) Third
D) Fourth

71. The first firm to mass-market a microcomputer as a personal computer was
C) Radio Shaks
D) Data General Corporation

72. How many address lines are needed to address each machine location in a 2048 x 4 memory chip?
A) 10
B) 11
C) 8
D) 12

73. Properly arranged data is called
A) Field
B) Words
C) Information
D) File

74. A computer consists of
A) A central processing unit
B) A memory
C) Input and output unit
D) All of the above

75. Why are vacuum tubes also called valves?
A) Because they can amplify the weak signals and make them strong
B) Because they can stop or allow the flow of current
C) Both of above
D) None of above

76. John Napier invented Logarithm in
A) 1614
B) 1617
C) 1620
D) None of above

77. An integrated circuit is
A) A complicated circuit
B) An integrating device
C) Much costlier than a single transistor
D) Fabricated on a tiny silicon chip

78. What type of control pins are needed in a microprocessor to regulate traffic on the bus, in order to prevent two devices from trying to use it at the same time?
A) Bus control
B) Interrupts
C) Bus arbitration
D) Status

79. Where as a computer mouse moves over the table surface, the trackball is
A) Stationary
B) Difficult to move
C) Dragged
D) Moved in small steps

80. Which of the following is used as a primary storage device?
A) Magnetic drum
B) Hard Disks
C) Floppy
D) All of above

These 100 MCQ questions from fundamentals of computer is distributed through mcqSets.com. Fundamentals of Computer is one of the most weighted topic on most of the competitive computer jobs exams.

81. Multi user systems provided cost savings for small business because they use a single processing unit to link several
A) Personal computers
B) Workstations
C) Dumb terminals
D) Mainframes

82. What are the three decisions making operations performed by the ALU of a computer?
A) Grater than
B) Less than
C) Equal to
D) All of the above

83. The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is
A) Editing
B) Writing
C) Formatting
D) All of above

84. Nepal brought a computer for census of 2028 BS. This computer was of
A) first generation
B) second generation
C) third generation
D) fourth generation

85. Algorithm and Flow chart help us to
A) Know the memory capacity
B) Identify the base of a number system
C) Direct the output to a printer
D) Specify the problem completely and clearly

86. Which statement is valid about computer program?
A) It is understood by a computer
B) It is understood by programmer
C) It is understood user
D) Both a & b

87. The difference between memory and storage is that memory is _____ and storage is __
A) Temporary, permanent
B) Permanent, temporary
C) Slow, fast
D) All of above

88. When was Pascaline invented?
A) 1617
B) 1620
C) 1642
D) 1837

89. Which of the following statement is valid?
A) Lady Augusta is the first programmer
B) Ada is the daughter of Lord Byron, a famous English poet
C) ADA is a programming language developed by US Defense
D) All of above

90. A compiler is a translating program which
A) Translates instruction of a high level language into machine language
B) Translates entire source program into machine language program
C) It is not involved in program’s execution
D) All of above

91. What is required when more than one person uses a central computer at the same time?
A) Light pen
B) Mouse
C) Digitizer
D) Terminal

92. Which of the following is the first computer to use Stored Program Concept?
D) None of above

93. The term gigabyte refers to
A) 1024 bytes
B) 1024 kilobytes
C) 1024 megabytes
D) 1024 gigabyte

94. in which year was UK’s premier computing event called ?The which computer? started?
A) 1980
B) 1985
C) 1986
D) 1987

95. Once you load the suitable program and provide required data, computer does not need human intervention. This feature is known as
A) Accuracy
B) Reliability
C) Versatility
D) Automatic

96. What is a brand?
A) The name of companies that made computers
B) The name of product a company gives to identify its product in market
C) A name of class to indicate all similar products from different companies
D) All of above

97. Machine language is
A) Machine dependent
B) Difficult to program
C) Error prone
D) All of above

98. A byte consists of
A) One bit
B) Four bits
C) Eight bits
D) Sixteen bits

99. Modern Computers are very reliable but they are not
A) Fast
B) Powerful
C) Infallible
D) Cheap

100. What is the date when Babbage conceived Analytical engine
A) 1642
B) 1837
C) 1880
D) 1850


1-A 2-D 3-D 4-D 5-C 6-A 7-C 8-D 9-C 10-B
11-C 12-C 13-D 14-C 15-C 16-B 17-B 18-B 19-C 20-D
21-B 22-D 23-C 24-B 25-A 26-B 27-B 28-A 29-B 30-D
31-B 32-D 33-B 34-A 35-A 36-D 37-A 38-C 39-B 40-B
41-C 42-B 43-C 44-D 45-C 46-A 47-B 48-D 49-A 50-B
51-D 52-B 53-B 54-D 55-C 56-C 57-C 58-C 59-B 60-B
61-C 62-B 63-D 64-A 65-D 66-D 67-C 68-A 69-B 70-C
71-C 72-B 73-C 74-D 75-B 76-A 77-D 78-C 79-A 80-A
81-C 82-D 83-C 84-B 85-D 86-D 87-A 88-C 89-D 90-D
91-D 92-C 93-C 94-A 95-D 96-B 97-D 98-C 99-C


Introduction Word Press 




WordPress is an open-source and free Web publishing application, content management system (CMS) and blogging tool built by a community of developers and contributors. WordPress allows users to build dynamic websites and blogs that may be updated, customized and managed from its back-end CMS and integrated application and components.

Word Press History:

WordPress started in 2003 with a single bit of code to enhance the typography of everyday writing and with fewer users than you can count on your fingers and toes. Since then it has grown to be the largest self-hosted blogging tool in the world, used on millions of sites and seen by ten millions of people every day.

 Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little co-founded WordPress.



Step 1:Install local server(WAMP or XAMPP).

Step 2:Start server.

Step 3:Wordpress package Copy from source and past in www  directory.

Step 4:Open PHP my admin and create database.

Step 5:Open wordpress package in browser(localhost/your folder name) (configure according to your database name and password ).

Step 6:Run and install

Step 7:Login in admin panel ( localhost/your  folder name/wp-login.php).

Step 8:Visit front site and enjoy with wordpress.