Generation of computers:
Five Generation of computers:
- First Generation Of Computer Period : 1940-1956
- Second Generation Of Computer Period: 1956-1963
- Third Generation Of Computer Period: 1964-1975(onwards)
- Fourth Generation Of Computer Period : – 1975-Present
- Fifth Generation Of Computer
FIRST GENERATION 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are first – generation computing devices.
- First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
- The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
- They were very large in size.
- Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
- Machine language was used for programming.
- First generation computers were unreliable.
- They were difficult to program and use.
Mark-I, EDSAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC-I and ENIAC
- After long history of computations, the 1G computers are able to process any tasks in milliseconds.
- The hardware designs are functioned and programmed by machine languages (Languages close to machine understanding).
- Vacuum tube technology is very much important which opened the gates of digital world communication.
- Size of that machines are very big
- Required large amount of energy for processing
- Very expensive
- Heat generated and need air conditioning.
- Not portable ( never take from one place to other)
- Comparing with 5G computers, these computers are slow in speed.
- Not reliable
- In order to get proper processing, maintenance is required continuously.
Second Generation – 1956-1963: Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s.
* Smaller, faster and cheaper.
- Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
- Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
- They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
- They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
- They took comparatively less computational time.
Assembly language was used for programming.
- Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.
IBM 7074 series, CDC 164, IBM 1400 Series.
- If we compare it with G1 computer, less expensive and smaller in size.
- Fast in speed
- Less head generated as G1 computers generate more.
- Need low power consumption
- Language after machine language for programming, in G2 assembly language (COBOL, FORTRON) is introduced for programming.
- Maintenance of machine is required.
- Air conditioning required still as heat causes to process slowly.
- These computers are not used as personal system.
- Preferably used for commercial purposes
Third Generation – 1964-1975: Integrated Circuits the development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. First Integrated Circuit
- IC was used instead of transistors in the third generation computers.
- Third generation computers were smaller in size and cheaper as compare to the second generation computers.
- They were fast and more reliable.
- High level language was developed.
- Magnetic core and solid states as main storage.
- They were able to reducecomputational time and had low maintenance cost.
- Input/output devices became more sophisticated.
IBM System/360 & IBM 370, PDP-8, DEC, UNIVAC 1108, UNIVAC 9000.
- Smaller in size
- Low cost then previous
- Low power consumption
- Easy to operate
- Input devices introduced and that make user easy to interact with it like keyboard, mouse etc
- External Storage medium introduced like floppy & tape.
- IC chips are still difficult to maintain
- Need complex technology.
Fourth Generation – 1975-(Onwards): Microprocessors the microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
- The fourth generation computers have microprocessor-based systems.
- They are the cheapest among all the computer generation.
- The speed, accuracy and reliability of the computers were improved in fourth generation computers.
- Many high-level languages were developed in the fourth generation such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL and C language.
- A Further refinement of input/output devices was developed.
- Networking between the systems was developed.
Intel processors, AMD processor based machines
- Smaller in size
- High processing speed
- Very reliable
- For general purpose
- More external storage mediums are introduced like CD-ROM, DVD-ROM.
- GUIs developed for interaction
- There are a lot of cases required for air conditioning.
- Highly sophisticated production was easier and cheaper.
Fifth Generation of Computer (1980 onwards): Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
- The fifthgeneration computers will use super large scale integrated chips.
- They will have artificial intelligence.
- They will be able to recognize image and graphs.
- Fifthgeneration computer aims to be able to solve highly complex problem including decision making, logical reasoning.
- They will be able to use more than one CPU for faster processing speed.
- Fifthgeneration computers are intended to work with natural language.
ULAIC Technology, Artificial intelligence etc
- Program independent
- Have thinking and analysis by its own
- Voice reorganization & biometric devices
- Self-organization and learning
- It is more reliable and works faster.
- Available in different sizes with unique features.
- Developing infrastructure needs high cost.
- Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.