Computer History 2001s-2006s

COMPUTERS Development 




Telemedicine uses satellite technology and videoconferencing to broad cast consultations and to perform distant surgeries. Robots are used for complex and precise tasks. Computer-aided surgery uses virtual reality to assist with training and planning procedures. Application service providers offer a return to a centralized computing environment, in which large mega servers warehouse data,information, and software, so it is accessible using a variety of devices from any location.


Hand spring begins shipping the Treo™communicator, a handheld computer with cellular telephone, e-mail, text messaging,and wireless Web capabilities. Microsoft launches its .NET strategy, which is a new environment for developing and running software applications featuring ease of development of Web-based services. Users of applications immediately see the benefit of .NET as instant access to data and services in the context of their current task



After several years of negligible sales, the Tablet PC is reintroduced as the next-generation mobile PC. The light weight device, the size of a three-ring notebook, is ideal for people on the go. It runs Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, has wireless capabilities, and features natural input capabilities including pen and speectechnologies. Computer manufacturers and software companies integrate high-end PCs and entertainment devices. The result is PCs with great entertainment functions that let you watch and record TV, burn CDs and DVDs, play games, and more.



Companies such as Real Networks,Microsoft, Sony, and Wal-Mart stake out turf in the online music store business started by Apple Computer. In the previous year, Apple’s iTunes Music Store Web sites old nearly 20 million songs for 99 cents each. Flat-panel LCD monitors over take bulky CRT monitors as the popular choice of computer users. Although flat-panel LCD monitors cost more, they offer several advantages including physical size, weight,true display size, better poweconsumption, and no radiation emission.USB Flash Drives, which are small enough to fit on a key chain but can store up to 4 billion characters, become a cost-effective way to transport data and information from one computer to another.



The Mozilla Foundation, the creators of the free open source Firefox browser, predicts that by the end of 2005, it will have 10 percent of the browser market, primarily at the expense of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (IE) security-plagued browser. Microsoft unveils Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005. This operating system allows users to access the routine capabilities of a Windows XP-based PC while focusing on delivering media content such as music,digital photography, movies, and television.



In response to the recent release of Microsoft’s Xbox 360, Sony launches its Play Station 3 and Nintendo launches its Revolution. Sony won the previounumbers games with worldwide sales of 90 million Play station 2 consoles to Microsoft’s 24 million Xbox consoles and Nintendo’s 21 million GameCube consoles. IBM produces the fastest supercomputer called Blue Gene/L. It can perform approximately 28 trillion calculations in the time it takes you to blink your eye, or about one-tenth of a second. The Blue Gene/L primarily is used to explore hydrodynamics, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, climate modeling, and financial modeling.

Computer History 1970s-2000s

COMPUTERS Development 




Fourth-generation computers, built with chips that use LSI (large-scale integration) arrive.While the chips used in 1965 contained as many as 1,000 circuits, the LSI chip contains as many as 15,000.


Dr. Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation develops a microprocessor, or micro programmable computer chip, the Intel 4004.


Ethernet, the first local area network (LAN),is developed at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) by Robert Metcalf. The LAN allows computers to communicate and share software, data, and peripherals.Initially designed to link minicomputers,Ethernet will be extended to personal computers.


Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak build the first Apple computer. A subsequent version, the Apple II, is an immediate success. Adopted by elementary schools, high schools, and colleges, for many students the Apple II is their first contact with the world of computers.


VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program written by Bob Frankston and Dan Bricklin, is introduced. Originally written to run on Apple II computers, VisiCalc will be seen as the most important reason for the acceptance of personal computers in the business world. The first public online information services, CompuServe and the Source, are founded.


IBM offers Microsoft Corporation co-founder,Bill Gates, the opportunity to develop the operating system for the soon-to-be announced IBM personal computer. With the development of MS-DOS, Microsoft achieves tremendous growth and success.Alan Shugart presents the Winchester hard drive, revolutionizing storage for personal computers.


The IBM PC is introduced, signaling IBM’s entrance into the personal computer marketplace. The IBM PC quickly garners the largest share of the personal computer market and becomes the personal computer of choice in business.


3,275,000 personal computers are sold,almost 3,000,000 more than in 1981.Compaq, Inc. is founded to develop and market IBM-compatible PCs. Hayes introduces the 300 bps smart modem. The modem is an immediate success.


Instead of choosing a person for its annual award, TIME magazine names the computer Machine of the Year for 1982,acknowledging the impact of computers on society.


IBM introduces a personal computer, called the PC AT, that uses the Intel 80286 microprocessor. Hewlett-Packard announces the first LaserJet printer for personal computers.


Several personal computers utilizing the powerful Intel 80386 microprocessor are introduced. These machines perform processing that once only large systems could handle.


Microsoft surpasses Lotus Development Corporation to become the world’s top software vendor.


The Intel 486 becomes the world’s first 1,000,000 transistor microprocessor. It crams 1.2 million transistors on a .4″ x .6″sliver of silicon and executes 15,000,000 instructions per second — four times as fast as its predecessor, the 80386 chip.


World Wide Web Consortium releases standards that describe a framework for linking documents on different computers.


Microsoft releases Windows 3.1, the latest version of its Windows operating system.Windows 3.1 offers improvements such as True Type fonts, multimedia capability, and object linking and embedding (OLE). In two months, 3,000,000 copies of Windows 3.1 are sold.


Several companies introduce computer systems using the Pentium® processor from Intel. The Pentium® chip is the successor to the Intel 486 processor. It contains 3.1 million transistors and is capable of performing 112,000,000 instructions per second.


Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen found Netscape and launch Netscape Navigator 1.0, a browser for the World Wide Web.Linus Torvalds creates the Linux kernel, a UNIX-like operating system that here leases free across the Internet for further enhancement by other programmers.


Sun Micro systems launches Java, an object-oriented programming language that allows users to write one application for a variety of computer platforms. Java becomes one of the hotter Internet technologies.


U.S. Robotics introduces Palm Pilot, a hand held personal organizer. The Palm Pilot’s user friendliness and low price make it a standout next to more expensive personal digital assistants (PDAs). An innovative technology called web tv combines television and the Internet by providing viewers with tools to navigate the Web.


Deep Blue, an IBM supercomputer, defeats world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a six-game chess competition. Millions of people follow the nine-day long rematch on IBM’s Web site. Fifty million users are connected to the Internet and World Wide Web.


More than 10,000,000 people take up telecommuting, which is the capability of working at home and communicating with an office via computer. Increasingly more firms embrace telecommuting to helincrease productivity, reduce absenteeism,and provide greater job satisfaction. E-commerce, or electronic commerce — the marketing of goods and services over the Internet — booms. Companies such as Dell, E*TRADE, and spur online shopping, allowing buyers to obtain everything from hardware and software to financial and travel services, insurance,automobiles, books, and more


Intel releases its Pentium® III processor,which provides enhanced multimedia capabilities. U.S. District Judge Thomas Pen field Jackson rules in the antitrust law suit brought by the Department of Justice and 19 states that Microsoft used its monopoly power to stifle competition.


Shawn Fanning, 19, and his company,Napster, turn the music industry upside down by developing software that allows computer users to swap music files with one another without going through a centralized file server. The Recording Industry of America, on behalf of five media companies, sues Napster for copyright infringement.

Computer Histroy 1930s-1960s

COMPUTERS Development 





Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry design and build the first electronic digital computer. Their machine, the Atanasoff Berry: Computer, or ABC, provides the foundation for advances in electronic digital computers.

Alan Turing: develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine



During World War II, British scientist AlanTuring designs the Colossus, an electroniccomputer created for the military to break German codes. The computer’s existence is kept secret until the 1970s.



Dr. John von Neumann writes a brilliant paper describing the stored program concept. His breakthrough idea, where memory holds both data and stored programs, lays the foundation for all digital computers that have since been built.



Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert,Jr. complete work on the first large scale electronic, general purpose digital computer. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)weighs thirty tons, contains 18,000 vacuum tubes, occupies a thirty:by:fifty:foot space, and consumes 160 kilowatts of power. The first time it is turned on, lights dim in an entire section of Philadelphia.



William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent the transfer resistance device, eventually called the transistor. The transistor would revolutionize computers, proving much more reliable than vacuum tubes.



The first commercially available electronic digital computer, the UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer), is introduced by Remington Rand. Public awareness of computers increases when the UNIVAC I, after analyzing only five percent of the popular vote, correctly predicts that Dwight. Eisenhower will win the presidential election.



Dr. Grace Hopper considers the concept of reusable software in her paper, “The Education of a Computer.” The paper describes how to program a computer with symbolic notation instead of the detailed machine language that had been used.



The IBM model 650 is one of the first widely used computer systems. Originally planning to produce only 50 machines, the system is so successful that eventually IBM manufactures more than 1,000. With the IBM 700 series of machines, the company will dominate the mainframe market for the next decade. Core memory, developed in the early 1950s, provides much larger storage capacity than vacuum tube memory.



FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation), an efficient, easy-to-use programming language, is introduced by John Backus. The IBM 305 RAMAC system is the first to use magnetic disk for external storage. The system provides storage capacity similar to magnetic tape that previously was used, but offers the advantage of semi: random access capability.



Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments invents the integrated circuit, which lays the foundation for high: speed computers and large: capacity memories. Computers built with transistors mark the beginning of the second generation of computer hardware.



More than 200 programming languages have been created. IBM introduces two smaller, desk: sized computers: the IBM 1401 for business and the IBM 1620 for scientists. The IBM 1620 initially is called the CADET,but IBM drops the name when campus wags claim it is an acronym for, Can’t Add,Doesn’t Even Try.



COBOL, a high: level business application language, is developed by a committee headed by Dr. Grace Hopper. COBOL uses English: like phrases and runs on most business computers, making it one of the more widely used programming languages.



The number of computers has grown to18,000. Third: generation computers, with their controlling circuitry stored on chips,are introduced. The IBM System/360computer is the first family of compatible machines, merging science and business lines



Dr. John Kemeny of Dartmouth leads the development of the BASIC programming language. BASIC will be widely used on personal computers. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the first minicomputer, the PDP:8. The machine is used extensively as an interface for time: sharing systems



Alan Shugart at IBM demonstrates the first regular use of an 8: inch floppy (magnetic storage) disk. In a letter to the editor titled, “GO TO Statements Considered Harmful,”Dr. Edsger Dijsktra introduces the concept of structured programming, developing standards for constructing computer programs. Computer Science Corporation becomes the first software company list edon the New York Stock Exchange.



Under pressure from the industry, IBM announces that some of its software will be priced separately from the computer hardware. This unbundling allows software firms to emerge in the industry. The ARPANET network, a predecessor of the Internet, is established.

Fundamental of Computer II

***Fundamental of Computer***MCQ’s

1)            Components of computer are_______________.

  1. A) 3                 B) 2                        C) 4                        D) 1

2)            Communication devices are _____________.

  1. A) Speaker                 B) Modem                          C) CD / DVD                        D) Floppy

3)            System unit consist of_________.

  1. A) Main Circuit Board B) Processor  C) Power Supply  D) All a, b, c

4) Peripheral devices are________.

  1. A) Printer                B) Processor                       C) Speaker

5) In which unit compare two quantities?             D) Modem

  1. A) Arithmetic Unit B) Control Unit C) Logic Unit

6) Accelerated graphics port is known as__________.

  1. A) PCI B) AGP                  C) ISA                    D) UPC

7)            Barcode has a series of numbers known as________.

  1. A) UCP B) UPC                  C) NIC  D) a, b

8)            Fingerprint Reader is used in __________.         D) Processing Unit

  1. A) Login a computer B) Surgery C) Medicine

9) ROM stores data__________.                             D) Playing Music

  1. A) Temporarily B) Permanently C) Partially

10) RAM stands for_________.                D) Fully

  1. A) Root Access Memory B) Random Available Memory                    C) Read Able Memory D) Random Access Memory

11)          A processor is also known as________.

  1. A) CPU      B) UPS  C) UPC                  D) PUS

12)          Robot is also known as__________.

  1. A) Civil Agents B) Electronic Agents  C) Electrical Agents D) Mechanical Agents

13) Barcode Reader is an__________ device.

  1. A) Storage                B) Output                            C) Display                            D) Input

14) RAM is used for_________ storage.

  1. A) Temporarily B) Partially C) Permanently  D) Fully

15) Two main components of processor are________ &_______.

  1. A) AU , LU                B) CU , LU                            C) ALU , CU                         D) AU ,CU

16)          ROM is __________ memory.

  1. A) Volatile                B) Versatile                         C) non volatile  D) a , b

17)          PCI is faster slot used for ___________ .

  1. A) Sound                B) Graphics                         C) Network Inter face Card

18)          Memory consists of __________ chips.

  1. A) Electronic                 B) Magnetic                        C) Silicon                              D) b , c

19)          __________ Work like a traffic policeman.

  1. A) AU                 B) LU                     C) ALU  D) CU

20)______ is a device that capture fingerprint.

  1. A) Barcode Reader B) Card Reader C) Fingerprint Reader

21) ________ is a box where processing takes place.     D) b, c

  1. A) Electronic Unit B) Arithmetic Unit C) System Unit

22) All computer components are plugged with ________.         D) Logic Unit

  1. A) Circuit Board B) Motherboard                               C) Processing Board         D) a, b

23)          The ______ main components of processor.

  1. A) One      B) Two                  C) Three                               D) Four

24)          Logical and mathematical problems are solved by _________.

  1. A) LU                 B) CU                     C) ALU  D) AU

25)          Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & division performed by _________.

  1. A) LU                 B) AU                    C) CU                     D) b, c


26)          Logic unit compares two quantities and give answer in which form?

  1. A) True B) Yes    C) False                D) a, c

27)          _______ is working space of computer.

  1. A) B) Execution                 C) Processing                     D) b, c

28)          ____contain start up instruction of computer and information about its hardware.

  1. A) Register                 B) RAM                 C) Address Bus                  D) ROM

29)          ___________gives a computer capability to control a storage device, an input device.

  1. A) Expansion Slots                 B) Expansion Cards                          C) PCI                    D) ISA

30)          _________ is a machine which is controlled by software.

  1. A) Scanner                 B) Barcode Reader                          C) Fingerprint Reader                     D) Robot

31)          AGP stands for __________.

  1. A) Accelerated Graph Port B) Accelerated Graphic Port C) Access Graphic Port

32) PCI stands for _____________.

  1. A) Peripheral Component Internet                 B) Program Component Interconnect
  2. C) Peripheral Component Interconnect D) Permanent Control Internet

33) ISA stands for _____________.

  1. A) Industry Standard Art B) Internet Standard Architecture
  2. C) Industry Standard Architecture D) Industry Sound Architecture

34) PCI slot is used for _________, graphic cards.

  1. A) Internet Card B) Network Card                 C) Modem Card                D) Sound Card

35)          _______ Slot is used for 3D graphics cards.

  1. A) ISA B) PCI    C) AGP                  D) PCI, AGP

36)          ________ is used to transmit data over telephone wires.

  1. A) Internet                B) Network

37) NIC stands for _________.                 C) Modem                          D) b , c

  1. A) Network Internet Connect                B) Network Internal Card
  2. C) Network Interface Card D) Network Interconnect Card

38)          _________ means information is lost when the power is swathed off.

  1. A) Erasable                 B) Non Volatile                  C) Volatile                           D) a , c

39)          Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor & printer are also known as ___________?

  1. A) Input B) Output C) Peripherals D) a , b

40)          System unit can be found in two shapes ______ .

  1. A) Laptop                B) Tower                              C) Desktop                          D) b , c

41)          ____slot is hard to find in modern computer.

  1. A) AGP      B) PCI    C) ISA                    D) UPC

42)          _________slot is a long narrow socket fixed on motherboard.

  1. A) Expression                 B) Execution                       C) Transmission                D) Expansion

43)          __________is used in security systems and criminal investigation.

  1. A) Card Reader B) Sound Reader  C) Barcode Reader D) Fingerprint Reader

44) A video game is played by using _________card.

  1. A) Modem                B) Sound                              C) Graphic                           D) Network Interface

45)          Which of the following is highest speed slot?

  1. A) ISA        B) PCI    C) AGP                  D) a, c

46)          Which of the following part of CPU controlled the sequence the instructions?

  1. A) LU                 B) AU                    C) CU                     D) ALU

47)          Arithmetic operation is performed by __________.

  1. A) LU                 B) AU                    C) ALU  D) CU

48)          A processor acts like a __________.

  1. A) Lever                 B) Heart                               C) Brain                D) Kidney

49)          There are _______ types of memory.

  1. A) Two      B) three                               C) One                  D) Four

50)          Processor is fixed on ________.

  1. A) Fan board                 B) Chipboard                      C) Motherboard
  2. D) Expansion board

51)          __________ is a place where processing takes place.

  1. A) Monitor                 B) CPU                  C) Ram                  D) System Unit

52)          Physical parts of computer are known as ____________.

  1. A) Operating System                 B) Software                        C) Hardware
  2. D) System Unit


Questions with Answers Questions with Answers  Questions with Answers-1 Questions with Answers
1) 2 2) Modem 3) All a,b,c 4) Printer
5) Logic Unit 6) AGP 7) UPC 8) Login a Computer
9) Permanently 10) Random Access Memory 11) CPU 12) Mechanical Agent
13) Input 14) Temporarily 15) CU, ALU 16) Non Volatile
17) All a,b,c 18) Electronic 19) CU 20) Fingerprint Reader
21)System Unit 22) a,b 23)Two 24)ALU
25)AU 26)a,c 27)Memory 28)ROM
29)Expansion Card 30)Robot 31)Accelerated Graphic Port 32)Peripheral Component Interconnect
33) Industry standard architecture 34) Sound Card 35) AGP 36) Modem
37) Network Interface Card 38) Volatile 39) Peripheral 40)b,c
41) ISA 42) Expansion 43) Fingerprint Reader 44) Graphics
45) AGP 46) CU 47) AU 48) Brain
49) Two 50) Motherboard 51) System Unit 52) Hardware


Generation of computers:

Five Generation of computers:

  1. First Generation Of Computer Period : 1940-1956
  2. Second Generation Of Computer Period: 1956-1963
  3. Third Generation Of Computer Period: 1964-1975(onwards)
  4. Fourth Generation Of Computer Period : – 1975-Present
  5. Fifth Generation Of Computer

FIRST GENERATION 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are first – generation computing devices.


  • First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.
  • The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.
  • They were very large in size.
  • Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.
  • Machine language was used for programming.
  • First generation computers were unreliable.
  • They were difficult to program and use.




  • After long history of computations, the 1G computers are able to process any tasks in milliseconds.
  • The hardware designs are functioned and programmed by machine languages (Languages close to machine understanding).
  • Vacuum tube technology is very much important which opened the gates of digital world communication.


  • Size of that machines are very big
  • Required large amount of energy for processing
  • Very expensive
  • Heat generated and need air conditioning.
  • Not portable ( never take from one place to other)
  • Comparing with 5G computers, these computers are slow in speed.
  • Not reliable
  • In order to get proper processing, maintenance is required continuously.

Second Generation – 1956-1963: Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s.

* Smaller, faster and cheaper.


  • Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
  • Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
  • They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
  • They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
  • They took comparatively less computational time.
    Assembly language was used for programming.
  • Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.


IBM 7074 series, CDC 164, IBM 1400 Series.


  • If we compare it with G1 computer, less expensive and smaller in size.
  • Fast in speed
  • Less head generated as G1 computers generate more.
  • Need low power consumption
  • Language after machine language for programming, in G2 assembly language (COBOL, FORTRON) is introduced for programming.


  • Maintenance of machine is required.
  • Air conditioning required still as heat causes to process slowly.
  • These computers are not used as personal system.
  • Preferably used for commercial purposes


Third Generation – 1964-1975: Integrated Circuits the development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. First Integrated Circuit


  • IC was used instead of transistors in the third generation computers.
  • Third generation computers were smaller in size and cheaper as compare to the second generation computers.
  • They were fast and more reliable.
  • High level language was developed.
  • Magnetic core and solid states as main storage.
  • They were able to reducecomputational time and had low maintenance cost.
  • Input/output devices became more sophisticated.


IBM System/360 & IBM 370, PDP-8, DEC, UNIVAC 1108, UNIVAC 9000.


  • Smaller in size
  • Low cost then previous
  • Low power consumption
  • Easy to operate
  • Portable
  • Input devices introduced and that make user easy to interact with it like keyboard, mouse etc
  • External Storage medium introduced like floppy & tape.


  • IC chips are still difficult to maintain
  • Need complex technology.

Fourth Generation – 1975-(Onwards): Microprocessors the microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.


  • The fourth generation computers have microprocessor-based systems.
  • They are the cheapest among all the computer generation.
  • The speed, accuracy and reliability of the computers were improved in fourth generation computers.
  • Many high-level languages were developed in the fourth generation such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL and C language.
  • A Further refinement of input/output devices was developed.
  • Networking between the systems was developed.


Intel processors, AMD processor based machines


  • Smaller in size
  • High processing speed
  • Very reliable
  • For general purpose
  • More external storage mediums are introduced like CD-ROM, DVD-ROM.
  • GUIs developed for interaction


  • There are a lot of cases required for air conditioning.
  • Highly sophisticated production was easier and cheaper.

Fifth Generation of Computer (1980 onwards): Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.


  • The fifthgeneration computers will use super large scale integrated chips.
  • They will have artificial intelligence.
  • They will be able to recognize image and graphs.
  • Fifthgeneration computer aims to be able to solve highly complex problem including decision making, logical reasoning.
  • They will be able to use more than one CPU for faster processing speed.
  • Fifthgeneration computers are intended to work with natural language.


ULAIC Technology, Artificial intelligence etc


  • Program independent
  • Have thinking and analysis by its own
  • Voice reorganization & biometric devices
  • Self-organization and learning


  • It is more reliable and works faster.
  • Available in different sizes with unique features.


  • Developing infrastructure needs high cost.
  • Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.

Basic Computer Part-1


  1. Mostly which of the following device is used to carry user files?
    A. Floppy Disk B. Hard Disk C. RAM                      D. CDROM
    2. Which device is used to backup the data?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. Tape          C. Network Drive.     D. All of the above
    3. In order to play and hear sound on a computer, one needs:
    A. a sound card and speakers    B. a microphone       C. all of them required
    4. Which of the following are the cheapest memory devices in terms of Cost/Bit?
    A. Semiconductor memories B. Magnetic Disks C. Compact Disks D. Magnetic Tapes
    5. Which of the following are the best units of data on an external storage device?
    A. Bits             B. Bytes        C. Hertz          D. Clock cycles
    6. Which of the following have the fastest access time?
    A. Semiconductor Memories       B. Magnetic Disks    C. Magnetic Tapes D. Compact Disk
    7. Which of the following is a read only memory storage device?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. CDROM   C. Hard Disk D. None of these
    8. Which of the following is a programming language?
    A. Lotus         B. Pascal      C. MS-Excel  D. Netscape
    9. What is a compiler?
    A. A compiler does a conversion line by line as the program is run
    B. A compiler converts the whole of a higher level program code into machine code in one step
    C. A compiler is a general purpose language providing very efficient execution
    10. What is an interpreter?
    A. An interpreter does the conversion line by line as the program is run
    B. An interpreter is the representation of the system being designed
    C. An interpreter is a general purpose language providing very efficient execution
    D. None of the above
    11. When a key is pressed on the keyboard, which standard is used for converting the keystroke into the corresponding bits?
    A. ANSI          B. ASCII         C. EBCDIC    D. ISO
    13. A Pixel is ………
    A. A computer program that draws picture
    B. A picture stored in secondary memory
    C. The smallest resolvable part of a picture
    14. Which device is used as the standard pointing device in a Graphical User Environment?
    A. Keyboard              B. Mouse      C. Joystick D. Track ball
    15. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer?
    A. 2                 B. 10               C. 16               D. 32
    16. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer?
    A. Binary       B. Decimal
    17. Which of the following is not an output device?
    A. Scanner    B. Printer       C. Flat Screen          D. Touch Screen
    18. Which of the following devices have a limitation that we can only store information to it but cannot erase or modify it?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. Hard Disk  C. Tape Drive            D. CDROM
    19. Which technology is used in Compact disks?
    A. Mechanical          B. Electrical   C. Electro Magnetic             D. Laser
    20. Which of the following storage devices can store maximum amount of data?
    A. Floppy Disk          B. Hard Disk            C. Compact Disk      D. Magneto Optic Disk
    21. Which of the following is the largest manufacturer of Hard Disk Drives?
    A. IBM            B. Seagate    C. Microsoft   D. 3M
    22. The programs which are as permanent as hardware and stored in ROM is known as
    A. Hardware              B. Software               C. Firmware  D. ROM ware
    23. Memory unit is one part of
    A. Input device B. Control unit      C. Output device      D. Central Processing Unit
    24.Who built the first Mechanical Calculator
    A. Joseph Marie Jacquard             B. John Mauchly      C. Blaise Pascal      D. Howard Aiken
    25. The earliest calculating devices are
    A. Abacus     B. Clock                     C. Difference Engine          D. None of these
    26. Punched cards were first introduced by
    A. Powers      B. Pascal       C. Jacquard D. Herman Hollerith
    27. Word length of a Personal Computer is ___
    A. 4 bits                      B. 8 bits                     C. 16 bits                   D. 64 bits
    28. Cursor is a ____
    A. Pixel          B. Thin blinking line          C. Pointing device   D. None of these
    29. Operating system, editors, and debuggers comes under?
    A. System Software           B. Application Software      C. Utilities D. None of the above
    30. Which device is required for the Internet connection?
    A. Joystick                 B. Modem     C. CD Drive               D. NIC Card
    31. What does DMA stand for?
    A. Distinct Memory Access             B. Direct Memory Access
    32. When did John Napier develop logarithm?
    A. 1416          B. 1614          C. 1641 D. 1804
    33. A normal CD-ROM usually can store up to __________data?
    A. 680 KB                  B. 680 Bytes              C. 680 MB     D. 680 GB
    34. ATM stands for?
    A. Automatic Talking Machine      B. Automatic Teller Machine       C. Analog Teller Machine
    35. The Second Generation Computer was based on ………….
    A. Vacuum Tube      B. Silicon Chips       C. Transistor           D. Bio Chips
    36. The Third Generation Computer was made with ………….
    A. Vacuum Tube      B. Discrete Components    C. IC               D. Bio Chips
    37. he BIOS is the abbreviation of ………….
    A. Basic Input Output System
  2. What do you call a single point on a computer screen
    A. Cell B. Element C. Pixel          D. Bit
    39. How was the generation of computer classified?
    A. by the device used in memory & processor
    40. Through which device the main components of the computer communicate with each other?
    A. Keyboard              B. System Bus                    C. Monitor D. Memory
    41. Which is a valid program to access the Internet?
    A. Access      B. Front Page           C. Windows Explorer          D. Netscape
    42. Which one is the Low Level Language?
    A. Assembly                         B. Visual Basic                     C. Java D. C++
    43. Which is a volatile memory?
    A. ROM          B. BIOS          C. PROM       D. RAM
    44. The digital signals can be represented by
    A. Binary Codes       B. 0 and 1      C. High and Low      D. all of the above
    45. Which program can be used for email?
    A. Internet Explorer B. Outlook Express           C. NetMeeting          D. FrontPage
    46. Modulator-demodulator is a device that converts:
    A. Digital signal into analog signal                B. Analog signal into digital signal      C. Both A and B
    47. _______ is used for scanning the pictures and putting them in digitized form in the computer.
    A. CD-ROM   B. Plotter        C. Bar-coder             D. Scanner
    48. Animator, 3D Studio, Corel Draw and Flash are………….
    A. Word processors B. Spreadsheet packages             C. Multimedia S/W
  3. Which statement is valid?
    A. 1 KB = 8 bytes B. 1 MB = 8 KB C. 1 KB = 1024 bytes
  4. Which device is used to process data?
    A. CPU B. RAM C. DCU          D. VDU
    51. Who is known as the father of Computer Science?
    A. Charles Babbage          B. Howard Aiken      C. Dr. Herman Hollerith D. Blaise Pascal
    52. What is the capacity of a 3.5” Floppy Disk?
    A. 360KB       B. 720KB       C. 1.2MB        D. 1.44MB
    53. A Personal Computer (PC) is a …………….. Computer.
    A. Super        B. Main Frame          C. Mini           D. Micro
    54. What type of printers are Dot Matrix Printers?
    A. Laser         B. Inkjet          C. Impact      D. Drum
    55. What is the full form of RAM?
    A. Read Access Memory    B. Random Access Memory        C. Rapid access Memory D. none

56. Where as a computer mouse moves over the table surface, the trackball is

57. Stationary b. Difficult to move c. Dragged      d. Moved in small stems

58. Which one of the following input device is user-programmable?

a. Dumb terminal b. Smart terminal c. VDT       d. Intelligent terminal

60. Which computer memory is used for storing programs and data currently being processed by the CPU? a. Mass memory b. Internal memory c. Non-volatile memory          d. PROM

61. Computer instructions written with the use of English words instead of binary machine code is called. a. Mnemonics b. Symbolic code c. Gray codes    d. Opcode

63. CD-ROM a. Is a `semiconductor memory b. Memory register c. Magnetic memory   d. None of the above

64. Which of the following is not a primary storage device? a. Magnetic tape b. Magnetic disk c. Optical disk d. None of the above


1. UNIVAC is
A) Universal Automatic Computer           B) Universal Array Computer
C) Unique Automatic Computer               D) Unvalued Automatic Computer2. The basic operations performed by a computer are
A) Arithmetic operation          B) Logical operation            C) Storage and relative         D) All the above3. The two major types of computer chips are
A) External memory chip             B) Primary memory chip           C) Microprocessor chip  D) Both b and c4. Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers
A) First Generation          B) Second Generation       C) Third Generation       D) Fourth Generation

5. What is the main difference between a mainframe and a super computer?
A) Super computer is much larger than mainframe computers
B) Super computers are much smaller than mainframe computers
C) Supercomputers are focused to execute few programs as fast as possible while mainframe uses its power to execute as many programs concurrently
D) Supercomputers are focused to execute as many programs as possible while mainframe uses its power to execute few programs as fast as possible.

6. ASCII and EBCDIC are the popular character coding systems. What does EBCDIC stand for?
A) Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
B) Extended Bit Code Decimal Interchange Code
C) Extended Bit Case Decimal Interchange Code
D) Extended Binary Case Decimal Interchange Code

7. The brain of any computer system is
A) ALU                       B) Memory           C) CPU                  D) Control unit

8. Storage capacity of magnetic disk depends on
A) tracks per inch of surface
B) bits per inch of tracks
C) disk pack in disk surface
D) All of above

9. The two kinds of main memory are:
A) Primary and secondary
B) Random and sequential
C) ROM and RAM
D) All of above

10. A storage area used to store data to a compensate for the difference in speed at which the different units can handle data is
A) Memory
B) Buffer
C) Accumulator
D) Address

11. Computer is free from tiresome and boardoom. We call it
A) Accuracy
B) Reliability
C) Diligence
D) Versatility

12. Integrated Circuits (Ics) are related to which generation of computers?
A) First generation
B) Second generation
C) Third generation
D) Fourth generation

13. CD-ROM is a
A) Semiconductor memory
B) Memory register
C) Magnetic memory
D) None of above

14. A hybrid computer
A) Resembles digital computer
B) Resembles analogue computer
C) Resembles both a digital and analogue computer
D) None of the above

15. Which type of computers uses the 8-bit code called EBCDIC?
A) Minicomputers
B) Microcomputers
C) Mainframe computers
D) Super computer

16. The ALU of a computer responds to the commands coming from
A) Primary memory
B) Control section
C) External memory
D) Cache memory

17. Chief component of first generation computer was
A) Transistors
B) Vacuum Tubes and Valves
C) Integrated Circuits
D) None of above

18. To produce high quality graphics (hardcopy) in color, you would want to use a/n
A) RGB monitor
B) Plotter
C) Ink-jet printer
D) Laser printer

19. What are the stages in the compilation process?
A) Feasibility study, system design and testing
B) Implementation and documentation
C) Lexical Analysis, syntax analysis, and code generation
D) None of the above

20. Which of the following IC was used in third generation of computers?
D) Both a and b

These 100 MCQ questions from fundamentals of computer is distributed through Fundamentals of Computer is one of the most weighted topic on most of the competitive computer jobs exams.

21. The main electronic component used in first generation computers was
A) Transistors
B) Vacuum Tubes and Valves
C) Integrated Circuits
D) None of above

22. A dumb terminal has
A) an embedded microprocessor
B) extensive memory
C) independent processing capability
D) a keyboard and screen

23. One millisecond is
A) 1 second
B) 10th of a seconds
C) 1000th of a seconds
D) 10000th of a seconds

24. The output quality of a printer is measured by
A) Dot per sq. inch
B) Dot per inch
C) Dots printed per unit time
D) All of the above

25. Which of the following was a special purpose computer?
D) All of the above

26. What was the computer invented by Attanasoff and Clifford?
A) Mark I
C) Z3
D) None of above

27. Which of the following storage devices can store maximum amount of data?
A) Floppy Disk
B) Hard Disk
C) Compact Disk
D) Magneto Optic Disk

28. Which computer was considered the first electronic computer until 1973 when court invalidated the patent?
C) Z3

29. A physical connection between the microprocessor memory and other parts of the microcomputer is known as
A) Path
B) Address bus
C) Route
D) All of the above

30. High density double sided floppy disks could store _____ of data
A) 1.40 MB
B) 1.44 GB
C) 1.40 GB
D) 1.44 MB

31. A high quality CAD system uses the following for printing drawing and graphs
A) Dot matrix printer
B) Digital plotter
C) Line printer
D) All of the above

32. Which of the following is not an input device?
B) Optical scanners
C) Voice recognition device
D) COM (Computer Output to Microfilm)

33. The accuracy of the floating-point numbers representable in two 16-bit words of a computer is approximately
A) 16 digits
B) 6 digits
C) 9 digits
D) All of above

34. In most of the IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drivers, memory, expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of the board?
A) Motherboard
B) Daughterboard
C) Bredboard
D) Fatherboard

35. In most IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drives, memory expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of this board?
A) Motherboard
B) Breadboard
C) Daughter board
D) Grandmother board

36. Magnetic disks are the most popular medium for
A) Direct access
B) Sequential access
C) Both of above
D) None of above

37. A technique used by codes to convert an analog signal into a digital bit stream is known as
A) Pulse code modulation
B) Pulse stretcher
C) Query processing
D) Queue management

38. Regarding a VDU, Which statement is more correct?
A) It is an output device
B) It is an input device
C) It is a peripheral device
D) It is hardware item

39. A modern electronic computer is a machine that is meant for
A) Doing quick mathematical calculations
B) Input, storage, manipulation and outputting of data
C) Electronic data processing
D) Performing repetitive tasks accurately

40. When was vacuum tube invented?
A) 1900
B) 1906
C) 1910
D) 1880

41. Which of the following produces the best quality graphics reproduction?
A) Laser printer
B) Ink jet printer
C) Plotter
D) Dot matrix printer

42. Computers with 80286 microprocessor is 
A) XT computer
B) AT comptuers
C) PS/2 computer
D) None of above

43. An application suitable for sequential processing is
A) Processing of grades
B) Payroll processing
C) Both a and b
D) All of above

44. Which of the following is not processing?
A) arranging
B) manipulating
C) calculating
D) gathering

45. The digital computer was developed primarily in
B) Japan

46. Software in computer
A) Enhances the capabilities of the hardware machine
B) Increase the speed of central processing unit
C) Both of above
D) None of above

47. Today’s computer giant IBM was earlier known by different name which was changes in 1924. What was that name?
A) Tabulator Machine Co.
B) Computing Tabulating Recording Co.
C) The Tabulator Ltd.
D) International Computer Ltd.

48. Before a disk drive can access any sector record, a computer program has to provide the record’s disk address. What information does this address specify?
A) Track number
B) Sector number
C) Surface number
D) All of above

49. The arranging of data in a logical sequence is called
A) Sorting
B) Classifying
C) Reproducing
D) Summarizing

50. What is the responsibility of the logical unit in the CPU of a computer?
A) To produce result
B) To compare numbers
C) To control flow of information
D) To do math’s works

These 100 MCQ questions from fundamentals of computer is distributed through Fundamentals of Computer is one of the most weighted topic on most of the competitive computer jobs exams.

51. Abacus was the first
A) electronic computer
B) mechanical computer
C) electronic calculator
D) mechanical calculator

52. If in a computer, 16 bits are used to specify address in a RAM, the number of addresses will be
A) 216
B) 65,536
C) 64K
D) Any of the above

53. Instructions and memory address are represented by
A) Character code
B) Binary codes
C) Binary word
D) Parity bit

54. The terminal device that functions as a cash register, computer terminal, and OCR reader is the:
A) Data collection terminal
B) OCR register terminal
C) Video Display terminal
D) POS terminal

55. A set of flip flops integrated together is called ____
A) Counter
B) Adder
C) Register
D) None of the above

56. People often call ______ as the brain of computer system
A) Control Unit
B) Arithmetic Logic Unit
C) Central Processing Unit
D) Storage Unit

57. Which is used for manufacturing chips?
A) Bus
B) Control unit
C) Semiconductors
D) A and b only

58. The value of each bead in heaven is
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 7

59. The first computer introduced in Nepal was
A) IBM 1400
B) IBM 1401
C) IBM 1402
D) IBM1402

60. Mnemonic a memory trick is used in which of the following language?
A) Machine language
B) Assembly language
C) High level language
D) None of above

61. Instruction in computer languages consists of
C) Both of above
D) None of above

62. Which generation of computer is still under development
A) Fourth Generation
B) Fifth Generation
C) Sixth Generation
D) Seventh Generation

63. A register organized to allow to move left or right operations is called a ____
A) Counter
B) Loader
C) Adder
D) Shift register

64. Which was the most popular first generation computer?
A) IBM 1650
B) IBM 360
C) IBM 1130
D) IBM 2700

65. Which is considered a direct entry input device?
A) Optical scanner
B) Mouse and digitizer
C) Light pen
D) All of the above

66. A set of information that defines the status of resources allocated to a process is
A) Process control
C) Register Unit
D) Process description

67. Each set of Napier’s bones consisted of ______ rods.
A) 5
B) 9
C) 11
D) 13

68. BCD is
A) Binary Coded Decimal
B) Bit Coded Decimal
C) Binary Coded Digit
D) Bit Coded Digit

69. When was the world’s first laptop computer introduced in the market and by whom?
A) Hewlett-Packard, 1980
B) Epson, 1981
C) Laplink Traveling Software Inc, 1982
D) Tandy Model-200, 1985

70. From which generation operating systems were developed?
A) First
B) Second
C) Third
D) Fourth

71. The first firm to mass-market a microcomputer as a personal computer was
C) Radio Shaks
D) Data General Corporation

72. How many address lines are needed to address each machine location in a 2048 x 4 memory chip?
A) 10
B) 11
C) 8
D) 12

73. Properly arranged data is called
A) Field
B) Words
C) Information
D) File

74. A computer consists of
A) A central processing unit
B) A memory
C) Input and output unit
D) All of the above

75. Why are vacuum tubes also called valves?
A) Because they can amplify the weak signals and make them strong
B) Because they can stop or allow the flow of current
C) Both of above
D) None of above

76. John Napier invented Logarithm in
A) 1614
B) 1617
C) 1620
D) None of above

77. An integrated circuit is
A) A complicated circuit
B) An integrating device
C) Much costlier than a single transistor
D) Fabricated on a tiny silicon chip

78. What type of control pins are needed in a microprocessor to regulate traffic on the bus, in order to prevent two devices from trying to use it at the same time?
A) Bus control
B) Interrupts
C) Bus arbitration
D) Status

79. Where as a computer mouse moves over the table surface, the trackball is
A) Stationary
B) Difficult to move
C) Dragged
D) Moved in small steps

80. Which of the following is used as a primary storage device?
A) Magnetic drum
B) Hard Disks
C) Floppy
D) All of above

These 100 MCQ questions from fundamentals of computer is distributed through Fundamentals of Computer is one of the most weighted topic on most of the competitive computer jobs exams.

81. Multi user systems provided cost savings for small business because they use a single processing unit to link several
A) Personal computers
B) Workstations
C) Dumb terminals
D) Mainframes

82. What are the three decisions making operations performed by the ALU of a computer?
A) Grater than
B) Less than
C) Equal to
D) All of the above

83. The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is
A) Editing
B) Writing
C) Formatting
D) All of above

84. Nepal brought a computer for census of 2028 BS. This computer was of
A) first generation
B) second generation
C) third generation
D) fourth generation

85. Algorithm and Flow chart help us to
A) Know the memory capacity
B) Identify the base of a number system
C) Direct the output to a printer
D) Specify the problem completely and clearly

86. Which statement is valid about computer program?
A) It is understood by a computer
B) It is understood by programmer
C) It is understood user
D) Both a & b

87. The difference between memory and storage is that memory is _____ and storage is __
A) Temporary, permanent
B) Permanent, temporary
C) Slow, fast
D) All of above

88. When was Pascaline invented?
A) 1617
B) 1620
C) 1642
D) 1837

89. Which of the following statement is valid?
A) Lady Augusta is the first programmer
B) Ada is the daughter of Lord Byron, a famous English poet
C) ADA is a programming language developed by US Defense
D) All of above

90. A compiler is a translating program which
A) Translates instruction of a high level language into machine language
B) Translates entire source program into machine language program
C) It is not involved in program’s execution
D) All of above

91. What is required when more than one person uses a central computer at the same time?
A) Light pen
B) Mouse
C) Digitizer
D) Terminal

92. Which of the following is the first computer to use Stored Program Concept?
D) None of above

93. The term gigabyte refers to
A) 1024 bytes
B) 1024 kilobytes
C) 1024 megabytes
D) 1024 gigabyte

94. in which year was UK’s premier computing event called ?The which computer? started?
A) 1980
B) 1985
C) 1986
D) 1987

95. Once you load the suitable program and provide required data, computer does not need human intervention. This feature is known as
A) Accuracy
B) Reliability
C) Versatility
D) Automatic

96. What is a brand?
A) The name of companies that made computers
B) The name of product a company gives to identify its product in market
C) A name of class to indicate all similar products from different companies
D) All of above

97. Machine language is
A) Machine dependent
B) Difficult to program
C) Error prone
D) All of above

98. A byte consists of
A) One bit
B) Four bits
C) Eight bits
D) Sixteen bits

99. Modern Computers are very reliable but they are not
A) Fast
B) Powerful
C) Infallible
D) Cheap

100. What is the date when Babbage conceived Analytical engine
A) 1642
B) 1837
C) 1880
D) 1850


1-A 2-D 3-D 4-D 5-C 6-A 7-C 8-D 9-C 10-B
11-C 12-C 13-D 14-C 15-C 16-B 17-B 18-B 19-C 20-D
21-B 22-D 23-C 24-B 25-A 26-B 27-B 28-A 29-B 30-D
31-B 32-D 33-B 34-A 35-A 36-D 37-A 38-C 39-B 40-B
41-C 42-B 43-C 44-D 45-C 46-A 47-B 48-D 49-A 50-B
51-D 52-B 53-B 54-D 55-C 56-C 57-C 58-C 59-B 60-B
61-C 62-B 63-D 64-A 65-D 66-D 67-C 68-A 69-B 70-C
71-C 72-B 73-C 74-D 75-B 76-A 77-D 78-C 79-A 80-A
81-C 82-D 83-C 84-B 85-D 86-D 87-A 88-C 89-D 90-D
91-D 92-C 93-C 94-A 95-D 96-B 97-D 98-C 99-C